Broadscale Conservation

Areas of hope: ensuring the conservation of future values of nature

Author(s): Kent H Redford and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Oryx, 2024

The huge surge of ecosystem change currently underway will inevitably bring losses, but there are also opportunities to avoid some of the worst impacts and to make some modest gains as we move towards a nature-positive future. This editorial essay proposes the creation of a "future conservation area" descriptor; an agreed-upon, carefully designed classification that would supplement the existing IUCN area-based conservation definitions. Application would mainly be to areas that are currently neither protected areas nor other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) but have the potential to become important conservation areas in the medium-term future. The paper goes on to clarify that in most cases such future conservation areas will not, in the short term, have much in the way of legal protection. But if identified carefully, by authoritative means, they could act rather like Key Biodiversity Areas, to earmark places that responsible governments, companies and communities s


Progress on implementing the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

Author(s): Gabrielle Aubert and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament, 2024

This briefing, commissioned by the European Parliament's Environment Committee, provides an overview of developments to date on the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF). It describes milestones and timeline for implementation, and critical issues currently affecting discussions and progress prior to the next Conference of the Parties (COP) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).


Forest Pathways Report 2023

Author(s): M.H. Gagen, N. Dudley, S. Jennings, H.L. Timmins, W. Baldwin-Cantello, L. D'Arcy, J.E. Dodsworth, D. Fleming, H. Kleymann, P. Pacheco and F. Price
Publisher: WWF-UK, 2023

This first edition of the Forest Pathways Report asks how our global forests are doing, and what better pathways we can take to meet 2030's global forest goals. The message is simple - we do not need new global forest goals, we need to implement the ones we have with high ambition and accountability, tackle the systemic threats to forests, deliver the financing needed, and national policy and action in line with global commitments.


Overgrazing as a wicked problem: Common factors around the world

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton and Hannah L. Timmins.
Publisher: Equilibrium Research Briefing

Overgrazing is a damaging, complex global phenomenon impacting grasslands and forests. Yet some grazing is essential for ecological balance in most terrestrial ecosystems. And many pastoralist communities are ancient cultures, themselves under threat. Our briefing outlines key issues, published now to start a conversation about how conservation bodies might respond.

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Retaining natural vegetation to safeguard biodiversity and humanity

Author(s): Jeremy S. Simmonds, Andres Felipe Suarez-Castro, April E. Reside, James E. M. Watson, James R. Allan, Scott C. Atkinson, Pasquale Borrelli, Nigel Dudley, Stephen Edwards, Richard A. Fuller, Edward T. Game, Simon Linke, Sean L. Maxwell, Panos Panagos, Philippe Puydarrieux, Fabien Quetier, Rebecca K. Runting, Talitha Santini, Laura J. Sonter and Martine Maron
Publisher: Conservation Biology, 2023

Global efforts to deliver internationally agreed goals to reduce carbon emissions, halt biodiversity loss, and retain essential ecosystem services have been poorly integrated. These goals rely in part on preserving natural (e.g., native, largely unmodified) and seminatural (e.g., low intensity or sustainable human use) forests, woodlands, and grasslands. To show how to unify these goals, this paper empirically derived spatially explicit, quantitative, area based targets for the retention of natural and seminatural (e.g., native) terrestrial vegetation worldwide. The results show the need to retain natural and seminatural vegetation across at least 50% of the total terrestrial (excluding Antarctica) surface of Earth. Retention efforts could contribute to multiple goals simultaneously, especially where natural and seminatural vegetation can be managed to achieve co-benefits for biodiversity, carbon storage, and ecosystem service provision.


COP15. How does the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework compare with the EU's Biodiversity Strategy ambition and targets?

Author(s): Gabrielle Aubert and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Institute for European Environmental Policy, 2023

The EU Biodiversity Strategy (EU BDS) to 2030, published in May 2020, is the policy that sets out how the European Union will contribute to the ambition of the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) to halt and reverse biodiversity loss and to put nature on a path to recovery. The EU BDS was developed whilst the GBF was being drafted in preparatory meetings. This briefing provides a comparison of the level of ambition of the targets of the post-2020 GBF and of the EU BDS to 2030.


A Pathway for Inland Waters in the 30x30 Target: Building knowledge and capacity for a radical increase in representation and effective management of inland waters in protected and conserved areas

Author(s): Robin Abell, Nigel Dudley, Ian Harrison, Tara Moberg, Korice Moir, Natalie Shahbol, Michele Thieme and Hannah Timmins
Publisher: The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International, IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas and WWF, 2022

A discussion document for a consortium of conservation organisations to bring inland waters into the heart of the CBD's Global Biodiversity Framework. It describes a range of area-based inland waters approaches that can contribute to 30x30; lays out a process for how this can be measured over time; and gives practical advice to managers of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures.


Inland waters: Science Brief for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

Author(s): Eren Turak, David Dudgeon, Barbara Bendandi, Michele Thieme, Jennifer Lento, Matthew Simpson, David Tickner, Anila Ajayan, Christopher Dickens, Nigel Dudley, Pablo Gutierrez-Fonseca, Margaret Hunter, Sonja Jahnig, Simon Linke, Jonathan Ready, Catherine Sayer, Astrid Schmidt-Kloiber, John Simaika, Thomas Starnes, Heidi van Deventer, Bethanie Walder
Publisher: GEO BON and FWBON, 2022

Part of a series of science briefs developed by the Secretariat of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) and the bioDISCOVERY programme of Future Earth, who convened a group of international experts to provide scientific support for the negotiations of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework (GBF). This brief on inland waters calls for the explicit inclusion of inland water ecosystems in the GBF goals, targets, and indicators is required to restore and safeguard these most threatened and least protected ecosystems and biodiversity on the planet.


Grasslands, Savannahs and Rangelands: Case Studies of Significance for Carbon and Biodiversity

Author(s): Karina Berg, Hannah Timmins and Jenny Hawley
Publisher: WWF, Plantlife and Equilibrium Research, 2022

Part of a series of briefings on the importance and potential of grasslands, savannahs and rangelands (GSRs) for global carbon storage and sequestration. This document provides several case studies to provide context to the state of GSR carbon studies and projects around the world. Key recommendations for CBD and UNCCD policy are presented in greater detail in the companion document on the importance of grasslands, savannahs and rangelands in global climate change strategies.


The Importance of Grasslands, Savannahs and Rangelands in Global Climate Change Strategies

Author(s): Karina Berg, Nigel Dudley, and Jenny Hawley
Publisher: WWF and Plantlife, 2022

Grasslands, savannahs and rangelands (GSRs) are huge carbon stores, vital global resources for biodiversity, food and freshwater security, and offer many ecosystem services to support climate mitigation and adaptation. This is jointly produced briefing from WWF-International and Plantlife International is aimed at country delegates at COP27. It calls for parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to (1) ensure the protection, sustainable management and restoration of natural GSRs in adaptation plans and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); (2) protect natural GSRs from land use changes such as inappropriate afforestation and agricultural intensification, which lead to net losses of carbon stocks, biodiversity and other ecosystem services; and (3) align UNFCCC actions on GSRs with the CBD and UNCCD, including through National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) and Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) targets.


Impact of Agriculture on Insect Species Decline

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Elsevier, 2022

Insect populations are declining catastrophically, even in many nature reserves, and agriculture is generally acknowledged to be one of the main drivers. This paper describes four major types of impact: conversion of natural ecosystems, intensification of management, release of pollutants into soils, air and water associated and value-chain impacts including energy consumption, transport use and food waste. Alternatives exist and changes to farming practices, subsidies and personal consumer choices are all briefly described.


Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework: Support and a Pathway for Inland Water Ecosystems in the '30 by 30' Target, Monitoring Framework and Implementation

Author(s): Tara Moberg, Ian Harrison, Nigel Dudley and Lucy Bastin
Publisher: TNC, 2022

Explicit inclusion of inland water ecosystems (e.g., freshwater ecosystems like rivers, lakes, wetlands and peatlands as well as inland brackish river and wetland ecosystems and estuaries) in the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework area-based conservation targets and indicators is critical to recover and safeguard the most threatened and least protected ecosystems and biodiversity on the planet. This briefing provides an overview of the evidence for this recommendation, a global baseline estimate of their current protection status and recommended pathways for inclusion.


Towards Nature Positive: The Role of Restoration for Land Degradation Neutrality

Author(s): Barbara Bendandi, Hermine Kleymann, Martina Fleckenstein, Nigel Dudley and Hannah Timmins
Publisher: WWF, 2022

Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) is intricately linked to many targets, currently in negotiation under the new CBD Global Biodiversity Framework and Paris Agreement commitments, along with the overall goal of achieving a Nature-Positive World by 2030. Ecosystem restoration is crucial to achieving LDN. This paper outlines WWF's key asks to ensure ecosystem restoration is central to these processes and notes that better aligned plans for restoration could improve the compatibility of commitments under these different conventions, frameworks and partnerships.


Reflecting on twenty years of forest landscape restoration

Author(s): Stephanie Mansourian, Nora Berrahmouni, Jurgen Blaser, Nigel Dudley, Stewart Maginnis, Musonda Mumba and Daniel Vallauri
Publisher: Restoration Ecology, 2021

In 2000, the term 'forest landscape restoration' (FLR) was first defined by a group that included among others, all of the authors on this paper. Today, FLR is widely accepted and promoted among diverse groups, at all levels, from the political to the scientific. To mark FLR's 20th anniversary, this article looks back at major progress and challenges faced to implement this concept since its definition. The article is a contribution to the launch of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration as well as to the many other ongoing FLR initiatives around the globe.


The 4 Returns Framework for Landscape Restoration

Author(s): Chris Baker, Paul Chatterton, Nigel Dudley, Willem Ferwerda, Victoria Gutierrez and Jane Madgwick
Publisher: Commonland, Wetlands International, Landscape Finance Lab, 2021

4 Returns is a science-based framework that is proven in practice. Developed in close collaboration with leading scientific institutes, business schools, farmers and experts, 4 Returns transforms degraded ecosystems by focusing on 4 returns, inspirational, natural, social and economic capital, over the course of a single generation (20 years).


An emerging conservation approach: Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Lisa Kopsieker, Giulia Costa Domingo, Harry Jonas and Cristina Lazaro
Publisher: IEEP, 2021

A think piece for IEEP exploring other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs); an emerging conservation approach which could promote biodiversity conservation in the EU to complement existing protected areas across landscapes and seascapes and contribute to achieving ambitious conservation targets.


Equitable and effective area‐based conservation: towards the conserved areas paradigm

Author(s): Harry D. Jonas, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Heather C. Bingham, Johnny Briggs, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Joji Carino, Olivier Chassot, Sunita Chaudhary, Emily Darling, Alfred DeGemmis, Nigel Dudley, Julia E. Fa, James Fitzsimons, Stephen Garnett, Jonas Geldmann, Rachel Golden Kroner, Georgina G. Gurney, Alexandra R. Harrington, Amber Himes‐Cornell, Marc Hockings, Holly C. Jonas, Stacy Jupiter, Naomi Kingston, tebrakunna country and Lee E., Susan Lieberman, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Daniel Marnewick, Clara L.
Publisher: PARKS 27.1, 2021

In 2018, the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted a decision on protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs). This policy perspective suggests that this CBD decision represents further evidence of the evolution from the 'new paradigm for protected areas' to a broader 'conserved areas paradigm' that embodies good governance, equity and effective conservation outcomes and is inclusive of a diversity of contributions to conservation within and beyond protected areas.


Building Civil Society Support: A Good Practice Guide for BirdLife Partners

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Hannah Timmins and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: BirdLife International, 2021

A Good Practice Guide produced for BirdLife International. The guide aims to help BirdLife Partners maximise positive links with civil society, to build support and strengthen their mission. The good practices are drawn from over 40 BirdLife Partner members from around the world. They explore how supporters and members contribute to a sustainable and successful NGO and identify practices and tools useful for recruiting and nurturing a supporter base and membership.

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Assess the potential of other effective area-based conservation measures as a driver for landscape-level conservation and connectivity in the EU

Author(s): UNEP-WCMC, IEEP and Trinomics
Publisher: EEA, 2021

The final report of an European Environment Agency commissioned scoping report to "Assess the potential of other effective area-based conservation measures as a driver for landscape-level conservation and connectivity in the EU". Developed with the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), the Institute for European Environment Policy (IEEP), and Trinomics.


A survey of user attitudes towards the proposed IUCN Green Status of Species

Author(s): Edited by Nigel Dudley and Hannah Timmins
Publisher: IUCN, 2021

The aim of the IUCN Green Status of Species is to provide an objective and practical definition of species recovery, applicable across all taxonomic groups, as a counterpoint to (or possibly an aspect of) the IUCN Red List of Species. This report presents the results of a survey to gather opinions and input from as wide a range of potential users of the Green Status of Species. Overall, the report concludes there is general support for concept, but a wide range of opinions exist about how it might be used.


Deforestation fronts: Drivers and responses in a changing world

Author(s): P. Pacheco, K. Mo, N. Dudley, A. Shapiro, N. Aguilar-Amuchastegui, P.Y. Ling, C. Anderson and A. Marx
Publisher: WWF, 2021

This major report, and summary report, provide a comprehensive analysis of deforestation connecting drivers and responses globally. The report focuses on 24 'deforestation fronts', places that have a significant concentration of deforestation hotspots and where large areas of remaining forests are under threat. Over 43 million hectares, an area roughly the size of Morocco, was lost in these 'deforestation fronts' between 2004 and 2017. WWF is calling for collective action to implement tailored and integrated solutions that work for people and nature to counter these threats.


Grassland and savannah ecosystems: An urgent need for conservation and sustainable management

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Luca Eufemia, Ilka Petersen, Martina Fleckenstein, et al
Publisher: WWF, 2020

Grasslands and savannahs are critically important ecosystems, rich in biodiversity. They are however in deep trouble. We have already converted more than half of all major grasslands and savannahs, and they continue to face one of the highest and fastest rates of conversion, driven by unsustainable agricultural expansion. Protecting them is critical to tackling biodiversity loss and climate change, but it must be done in a way which also contributes to improving food security and maintaining livelihoods and local cultures. This paper highlights just some of the ways in which this can be done, with a suite of specific practices that can be actioned immediately.


Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century

Author(s): Sean L. Maxwell, Victor Cazalis, Nigel Dudley, Michael Hoffmann, Ana S. L. Rodrigues, Sue Stolton, Piero Visconti, Stephen Woodley, Naomi Kingston, Edward Lewis, Martine Maron, Bernardo B. N. Strassburg, Amelia Wenger, Harry D. Jonas, Oscar Venter and & James E. M. Watson
Publisher: Nature, Vol 586, 2020

This paper is a major review of conservation over the last decade. It illustrates how the expansion of protected areas by national governments since 2010 has had limited success in increasing coverage across different elements of biodiversity and ecosystem services. But, to be more successful after 2020, area-based conservation must contribute more effectively to meeting global biodiversity goals and must better collaborate with the many Indigenous peoples, community groups and private initiatives that are central to the successful conservation of biodiversity. The paper concludes long-term success of area-based conservation requires parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to secure adequate financing, plan for climate change and make biodiversity conservation a far stronger part of land, water and sea management policies.


Sustainable relationships and ecological authenticity

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: The Elgar Companion to Geography, Transdisciplinarity and Sustainability edited by Fausto O. Sarmiento and Larry M. Frolich, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. UK, 2020

This chapter argues that naturalness is a much more important component of sustainable development than is generally recognised, but that we need to do some fundamental rethinking about what we mean by 'natural' if it is to remain a meaningful concept in the future. To focus attention on these changes, use of the concept of 'authenticity' is suggested as an alternative way of viewing the issue more suited for conditions in the twenty-first century.


Leaving Space for Nature: The Critical Role of Area-Based Conservation

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Routledge, 2020

Our new book is a personal reflection on area-based conservation and its implications for nature and society. Drawing on our experiences around the world we aim to provide a concise overview of the status and possible futures of area-based conservation. We hope it is both an entertaining read and an informative contribution to debates on the future needs and direction of area-based conservation.


Practical solutions to conservation challenges: 30 years making waves

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Equilibrium Research, 2020

To celebrate our 30th birthday together as Equilibrium Research we have taken a step back to review our past work, and a step forward to think about our future work and priorities. Our latest publication looks at a wide range of environmental and conservation issues, and our contribution to highlighting needs and finding solutions.

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Mobile Pastoralism and the World Heritage Convention

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Liza Zogib
Publisher: IUCN, 2019

News story on the recent report from the Roads Less Travelled initiative and partners which looks at the position of mobile pastoralists in World Heritage sites, drawing on nine case studies.


Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures

Author(s): The OECM Task Force co-chaired by Kathy MacKinnon and Harry Jonas with editorial group Nigel Dudley, Marc Hockings, Dan Laffoley, David MacKinnon, Trevor Sandwith and Stephen Woodley
Publisher: IUCN, 2019

In November 2018, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted at the 14th Conference of the Parties a definition of an "other effective area-based conservation measure" (OECM) as well as guiding principles, common characteristics and criteria for identification of OECMs. The WCPA Task Force on OECMs has produced these guidelines to assist Parties in interpreting and operationalising OECMs and to start to develop a body of good practice around recognising and reporting OECMs. It is designed for application at various scales, ranging from understanding whether an individual area is an OECM to reporting OECM statistics at the national and global level as a means to assess progress on achieving conservation targets.


How conservation initiatives go to scale

Author(s): Morena Mills, Michael Bode, Michael B. Mascia, Rebecca Weeks, Stefan Gelcich, Nigel Dudley, Hugh Govan, Carla L. Archibald, Cristina Romero-de-Diego, Matthew Holden, Duan Biggs, Louise Glew, Robin Naidoo & Hugh P. Possingham
Publisher: Nature Sustainability 2:935–940(2019)

A quantitative exploration of how area-based conservation initiatives go to scale. By analysing the adoption of 22 widely recognized and diverse initiatives from across the globe, this study revealed consistent patterns of uptake. The paper discusses methodology, findings and provides recommendations for scaling up the extent, speed and patterns of adoption of conservation initiatives.


Mobile Pastoralism and the World Heritage

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Nigel Dudley and Liza Zogib
Publisher: Roads Less Travelled, 2019

Mobile pastoralism is declining and under pressure, although important pastoralist communities remain in many places. World Heritage sites are no exception. This report found major differences within World Heritage sites in terms of how mobile pastoralists are perceived and dealt with. In some sites, pastoralism is cited as integral to the successful stewardship and conservation of the site.  In others, herders are blamed for land degradation, or deemed incompatible with areas of ‘pristine wilderness’, which leads to forced or coerced removal. The report concludes that clear safeguards and guidance on mobile pastoralism are needed for all World Heritage sites, in line with international law, norms and standards concerning human rights, including the rights of indigenous peoples.


Core principles for successfully implementing and upscaling Nature-based Solutions

Author(s): Emmanuelle Cohen-Shacham, Angela Andrade, James Dalton, Nigel Dudley, Mike Jones, Chetan Kumar, Stewart Maginnis, Simone Maynard, Cara R. Nelson, Fabrice G. Renaud, Rebecca Welling and Gretchen Walters
Publisher: Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 98, August 2019

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) can be an effective framework for reversing biodiversity loss, by increasing the alignment between conservation and sustainable development objectives. However, unless there is clarity on its evolution, definition and principles, and relationship with related approaches, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based standards and guidelines, or to implement, assess, improve and upscale NbS interventions globally. In order to address this gap, this paper presents and discusses the definition and principles underpinning the NbS framework, recently adopted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.


Synergies between the key biodiversity area and systematic conservation planning approaches

Author(s): Robert J Smith, Leon Bennun, Thomas M Brooks, Stuart HM Butchart, Annabelle Cuttelod, Moreno Di Marco, Simon Ferrier, Lincoln DC Fishpool, Lucas Joppa, Diego Juffe-Bignoli, Andrew T Knight, John F Lamoreux, Penny Langhammer, Hugh P Possingham, Carlo Rondinini, Piero Visconti, James EM Watson, Stephen Woodley, Luigi Boitani, Neil D Burgess, Naamal De Silva, Nigel Dudley, Fabien Fivaz, Edward T Game, Craig Groves, Mervyn Lötter, Jennifer McGowan, Andrew J Plumptre, Anthony G Rebelo, Jon Paul
Publisher: Conservation Letters, 2018

Systematic conservation planning and Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are the two most widely used approaches for identifying important sites for biodiversity. However, there is limited advice for conservation policy makers and practitioners on when and how they should be combined. This multi-authored paper reviews and clarifies the similarities and differences between the two approaches.The paper concludes that conservation planners should use KBA data in their analyses, setting context-specific targets for each KBA type, and planners and donors should use systematic conservation planning techniques when prioritizing between KBAs for management action.


A Stepwise Approach to Increasing Ecological Complexity in Forest Landscape Restoration

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Stewart Maginnis
Publisher: Ecological Restoration, 36:3, 2018

The paper outlines a stepwise forest landscape restoration, that is a process of deliberately pursuing incremental gains that supplement or speed up natural succession towards increased ecological complexity, increased resilience and increased diversity of benefits. A stepwise approach to forest restoration increases opportunities to regain natural forest functioning, thus providing maximum resilience to environmental
change. It however acknowledges that resilience will not always be the first priority of restoration projects, particularly when these are aimed at the immediate needs of local communities but can be addressed gradually, as restoration progresses.


Tools for measuring, modelling, and valuing ecosystem services

Author(s): Rachel A. Neugarten, Penny F. Langhammer, Elena Osipova, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Nirmal Bhagabati, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Nigel Dudley, Vittoria Elliott, Leah R. Gerber, Claudia Gutierrez Arrellano, Kasandra-Zoica Ivanić, Marianne Kettunen, Lisa Mandle, Jennifer C. Merriman, Mark Mulligan, Kelvin S.-H. Peh, Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne, Darius J. Semmens, Sue tolton and Simon Willcock
Publisher: IUCN, 2018

New guidance to help practitioners assess ecosystem services within important sites for biodiversity and nature conservation. The report reviews nine assessment tools, focusing on their application in Key Biodiversity Areas, natural World Heritage sites and protected areas. It includes a set of “decision trees” to save time on the complex process of selecting the most appropriate tool for one’s specific needs. The tools include the Protected Area Benefits Assessment Tool (PA-BAT) developed by Equilibrium Research.


Engaging end-users to inform the development of the global standard for the identification of key biodiversity areas

Author(s): Jessica Maxwell, Simon Allen,Thomas Brooks, Annabelle Cuttelod, Nigel Dudley, Janet Fisher, Penny Langhammer, Genevieve Patenaude, Stephen Woodley
Publisher: Environmental Science and Policy 89 (2018)

Key Biodiversity Areas are sites contributing significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity. This paper reports on the results from an end-user engagement process, convened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which informed the development of the Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas. The results presented informed the development of the Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas and a new governance structure, the Key Biodiversity Area Consultative Forum, which provides a mechanism for ongoing dialogue with end-users.


Measuring progress in status of land under forest landscape restoration using abiotic and biotic indicators

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Shonil A. Bhagwat, Jim Harris, Stewart Maginnis, Jaime Garcia Moreno, Gregory M. Mueller, Sara Oldfield and Gretchen Walters
Publisher: Restoration Ecology Vol. 26, No. 1, 2018

Forest landscape restoration (FLR) aims to restore multiple functions of forests at a landscape scale. It is predicated on the hypothesis that restoration produces enabling conditions for ecosystem services, including regulating services such as carbon sequestration and pollination, and provisioning services such as food and energy. As FLR gains greater uptake, it is increasingly important to monitor progress. This paper suggests a minimum set of abiotic and biotic threshold indicators and progress indicators for FLR; and for pressures and project outputs.


Beyond the Stripes: Save Tigers, Save So Much More

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF, 2017

Beyond the Stripes looks at wider values of tiger conservation in providing ecosystem services ranging from provision of drinking water to disaster reduction and recreational values. Governments often think money spent on conservation is wasted for other priorities. This report, the first of its kind,shows that conserving the tiger brings a string of additional, often unrecognized, economic and social benefits.


Forest Landscape Restoration: Progress in the Last Decade and Remaining Challenges

Author(s): Stephanie Mansourian, Nigel Dudley and Daniel Vallauri
Publisher: Ecological Restoration Vol. 35, No. 4, 2017

This paper takes a step back to reflect on developments in Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) over the last twelve years, using as a framework 13 key issues raised in 2005. While FLR can provide an important means of achieving multiple objectives in forested landscapes, outstanding challenges to its effective and widespread application remain; in particular implementation of truly large-scale restoration initiatives that have both ecological and socio-economic objectives, tackling governance challenges, focusing on both quality and quantity of restored landscapes, promoting the links between FLR and climate change, and ensuring adequate and long-term monitoring.


An introduction to ‘other effective area‐based conservation measures’ under Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Origin, interpretation and emerging ocean issue

Author(s): Dan Laffoley, Nigel Dudley, Harry Jonas, David MacKinnon, Kathy MacKinnon, Marc Hockings and Stephen Woodley
Publisher: Aquatic Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst. 2017;27(S1):130–137.

This paper provides a background to ‘other effective area‐based conservation measures’, or OECMs, and an initial analysis on the type and nature of measures that may qualify as marine OECMs under Aichi Target 11. Some generic examples of areas likely to qualify as OECMs in the ocean are identified, along with an analysis of how OECMs complement and supplement fisheries and other management measures to promote more sustainable use.


Landscape Elements. Steps to achieving Integrated Landscape Management

Author(s): Paul Chatterton, Thibault Ledecq and Nigel Dudley (Editors)
Publisher: WWF, 2016

WWF´s landscape work aims to integrate conservation, sustainable use and where necessary restoration across a whole landscape mosaic to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, whilst ensuring room for subsistence and commercial activities. Landscape Elements, is a new brief that brings together WWF´s experience in working with partners and stakeholders to implement landscape approaches for sustainable development. The briefing describes in detail key steps to achieve integrated landscape management.


Living Amazon Report 2016

Author(s): Sandra Charity, Nigel Dudley, Denise Oliveira and Sue Stolton (editors)
Publisher: WWF International, 2016

WWF’s vision for the Amazon region is to ensure an ecologically healthy Amazon biome that maintains its environmental and cultural contributions to local peoples, the countries of the region, and the world, within a framework of social equity, inclusive economic development and global responsibility. The Living Amazon Report outlines the current status of the Amazon, summarizes key pressures and agents of change and outlines a conservation strategy for the next decade, to help realise this vision.


Future oriented conservation: knowledge governance: uncertainty and learning

Author(s): Carina Wyborn, Lorrae van Kerkhoff, Michael Dunlop, Nigel Dudley and Oscar Guevara
Publisher: Biodiversity and Conservation, 2016

Despite significant progress in understanding climate risks, adaptation efforts in biodiversity conservation remain limited. This paper outlines an approach to future-oriented conservation that combines the capacities to anticipate future ecological change; to understand the implications of that change for social, political and ecological values; and the ability to engage with the governance (and politics) of adaptation.


Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

Author(s): Thomas Brooks, Annabelle Cuttelod, Naamal De Silva, Nigel Dudley,Lincoln Fishpool, Penny Langhammer, Jon Paul Rodríguez, Carlo Rondinini, Bob Smith and Stephen Woodley
Publisher: IUCN, 2016

These standards build on more than 30 years of experience in identifying important sites for different taxonomic, ecological and thematic subsets of biodiversity, including Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, Important Plant Areas and many others. The KBA Standard aims to: 1) Harmonise existing approaches to the identification of important sites for biodiversity; 2) Support the identification of important sites for elements of biodiversity not considered in existing approaches; 3) Provide a system that can be applied consistently and in a repeatable manner by different users and institutions in different places and over time; 4) Ensure that KBA identification is objective, transparent and rigorous through application of quantitative thresholds; and 5) Provide decision-makers with an improved understanding of why particular sites are important for biodiversity.


Living Forests Report: Chapter 5: Saving Forests at Risk

Author(s): Editor in Chief: Rod Taylor; Technical Editors: Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF, 2015

This publication, the final chapter of the Living Forest Report, identifies 11 regions that will account for more than 80 per cent of projected deforestation between 2010 and 2030. If nothing is done, we could lost up to 656,000 square miles of forests. The report brings together the latest data and expert opinion to identify the regions and the likely causes of deforestation in each place.


Applications of Key Biodiversity Areas: End user consultations

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Jessica L. Boucher, Annabelle Cuttelod, Thomas M. Brooks and Penny F. Langhammer
Publisher: IUCN, 2014

IUCN is developing a standardised methodology and criteria for identifying areas of critical importance to the persistence of biodiversity: known as key biodiversity areas. The current volume reports on a survey of 27 actual and potential user groups, ranging from major institutions like the World Bank to local NGOs, indigenous peoples’ organisations and faith groups. Studies followed a set format, looking at needs, hopes and fears about KBAs and what implications these had for future development; it is probably the largest user survey carried out to date by the Union.


Common guidance for the identification of High Conservation Values

Author(s): E. Brown, N. Dudley, A. Lindhe, D.R. Muhtaman, C. Stewart, and T. Synnott (eds.)
Publisher: HCV Resource Network, 2013

The High Conservation Value concept grew out of efforts by the Forest Stewardship Council to identify those forests requiring particularly careful management and protection. It has since further developed to address a range of ecosystems, and for certification schemes covering many other products such as soy and oil palm. This manual provides detailed guidance to identification of the six High Conservation Values, plus many cases studies, explanation of terminology and appendices explaining application of HCV to grasslands and freshwater.


Ecosystems in the Greater Mekong: Past trends, current status, possible futures

Author(s): Geoffrey Blate, Peter Cutter, Barbara Pollini, Aurélie Shapiro, Sarah Bladen and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF, 2013

Equilibrium was part of a team drawn together by WWF to compile a detailed study of the status and potential future of natural resources in the Mekong countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam and parts of China). The report has a particular emphasis on forests, freshwater and endangered species. A new analysis has mapped forest cover throughout the region and likely futures are compared using “high consumption” and “green economy” scenarios. The report also provides a detailed overview of drivers of ecosystem change. It is abundantly illustrated with maps, photographs and diagrams, providing the most detailed overview yet of conservation challenges in the Greater Mekong.


Living Forests Report: Chapter 4: Forests and wood products

Author(s): Editor in Chief: Rod Taylor. Technical Editors: Nigel Dudley, Emmanuelle Neyroumande, Michael Obersteiner, Sue Stolton and George White
Publisher: WWF, 2012

The Living Forests Report aims to catalyse debate on the future role and value of forests in a world where humanity is living within the Earth’s ecological limits and sharing its resources equitably. The 4th chapter of the report examines current and future demand for wood products and how this can best be met. It explores the many values and uses of wood and its footprint relative to alternative materials; the current and future demand for wood products; the relationship between wood production and the conservation of other
forest values and various options for producing wood.


Conserving Dryland Biodiversity

Author(s): Jonathan Davies et al
Publisher: IUCN, UNCCD, UNEP-WCMC and others, 2012

An overview of approaches to conserve biodiversity within deserts and other dryland ecosystems, with a strong emphasis on ecosystem approaches, role of protected areas and participatory methods. A collaboration between various IUCN commissions and UN agencies, including the UN Convention to Combat Desertification.  


Wildlife in a changing climate

Author(s): Edited by Edgar Kaeslin, Ian Redmond and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: FAO Forestry Paper 167, 2012

Addressing wildlife management among the multiple other concerns resulting from climate change will be challenging. This paper examines the likely ecosystem and landscape changes that will occur in forests, mountains, wetlands, coastal areas, savannahs, grasslands and steppes as a result of climate change.As well as highlighting climate-induced changes and their likely consequences, the paper provides useful and up-to-date information on how these could be addressed.


Living Forests Report: Chapter 3: Forests and Climate

Author(s): Editor in Chief: Rod Taylor; Technical Editors: Bruce Cabarle, Paul Chatterton, Nigel Dudley, Michael Obersteiner, Kirsten Schuyt, Gerald Steindlegger, Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF, 2011

Released just before the UN climate convention (COP 17) in Durban the latest chapter in the Living Forest Report looks at forest degradation and deforestation from the perspective of carbon emissions, and the resulting impacts on climate. It explores how the proposed REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation plus) mechanism can help achieve a radical reduction in deforestation. REDD+ aims to make tropical forests more valuable standing than cut down by providing financial incentives to developing countries to maintain their forests.


Authenticity in Nature: Making Choices about the Naturalness of Ecosystems

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Earthscan, 2011

In this book Nigel examines the concept of naturalness in ecosystems, discusses its values and considers choices about the level of naturalness in conservation efforts.Reviewed in Nature (447) by Shahid Naeem, professor of ecology at Columbia University, states: "his hypothesis comes from a thoughtful examination of various attempts to define 'natural' and 'wild' — by scientists, philosophers, managers, non-governmental organizations and policy-makers. Dudley demonstrates that there is neither coherence nor consensus as to what constitutes naturalness or wildness. He suggests that we focus instead on “authenticity” ... a web of interacting species  that provides stable ecosystem functions and services"


Living Forests Report: Chapter 2: Forests and Energy

Author(s): Editor in Chief: Rod Taylor; Technical Editors: Nigel Dudley, László Máthé, Michael Obersteiner and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF, 2011

The second chapter in WWF's Living Forest Report uses the Living Forests Model, created in collaboration with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, to examine the land use implications of two key WWF targets: reducing deforestation to near zero by 2020 and meeting 100 per cent of humanity’s energy needs with renewable sources by 2050. The model shows that we can protect forests and switch to renewable energy, but not unless we manage our resources and our levels of consumption sustainably.


Religious following in biodiversity hotspots: challenges and opportunities for conservation and development

Author(s): Shonil A. Bhagwat, Nigel Dudley and Stuart R. Harrop
Publisher: Conservation Letters, 4:3, 234–240, June/July 2011

This paper examine the potential of religions in facilitating biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. A quantitative analysis of countries represented within Conservation International's list of Biodiversity Hotspots suggests a high level of plurality of religious following, but also a significant need for economic development and environmental conservation.


Living Forests Report: Chapter 1

Author(s): Editor in Chief: Rod Taylor; Technical Editors: Nigel Dudley, Michael Obersteiner and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF, 2011

During the 2011 International Year of Forests, WWF’s Living Forests Report is part of a year‑long conversation with partners, policymakers, and business about how to protect, conserve, sustainably use, and govern the world’s forests in the 21st century. To help understand how best to manage the often competing demands of our forests, WWF developed the Living Forests Model with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). The model will be used in a series of chapters released throughout 2011 to explore various global land-use scenarios. It calculates the effect of forces such as population growth and consumer demand, and describes possible consequences on key areas such as food production, climate change, biodiversity, commodity prices and economic development. This first chapter introduces the model and the themes to be discussed throughout the year.


Religious following in biodiversity hotspots: challenges and opportunities for conservation and development

Author(s): Shonil A. Bhagwat, Nigel Dudley and Stuart R. Harrop
Publisher: Conservation Letters, 2011

World religions have historically advocated ethical and moral codes of conduct which can be supportive of these objectives. But can religions play a direct role in conservation and development? This paper examines the potential of religions in facilitating biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. A quantitative analysis of countries represented within Conservation International’s list of Biodiversity Hotspots suggests a high level of plurality of religious following, but also a significant need for economic development and environmental conservation. The paper suggests that partnerships between conservation and development organizations and mainstream, as well as minor, faith groups might provide a greater public legitimacy and provide capability to mobilize mass support for biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.


Europe's ecological backbone: recognising the true value of our mountains

Author(s): Multiple Authors
Publisher: European Environment Agency, 2010

Europe's mountain areas have social, economic and environmental capital of significance for the entire continent. This publication from the EEA includes contributions on these values from many authors. Our contribution is a short section on mountain ecosystem services in European protected areas. 


Pacific Biodiversity and Climate Change: Ecosystem- Based Adaptation – Analysis and Needs Assessment

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), 2010

The Pacific Island Countries and Territories are recognised as being particularly vulnerable to climate change. In 2010, the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) received funding from the Australian government to undertake an assessment of biodiversity and climate change in the Pacific in relation to ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA). This report summarises a two-day workshop held at the SPREP headquarters in Apia, Samoa, to plan how to develop this, and a larger, EBA project.

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New Generation Plantation Project – synthesis report 2007-2009

Author(s): Luis Neves Silva coordinator, Nigel Dudley consultant
Publisher: WWF International, 2009

The synthesis and recommendations from a unique collaborative effort between WWF and nine state and private plantation companies, looking at issues relating to high conservation value forests, stakeholder engagement and ecological integrity. The report draws on discussions and lessons from a series of field visits and three background papers.


Forests and water - FAO Forestry Paper No. 155

Author(s): Larry Hamilton with contributions from N Dudley, G Greminger, H Hassan, D Lamb, S Stolton and S Tognetti 
Publisher: FAO, 2008

This study explains the role of forests in the hydrological cycle, with a  particular focus on critical, "red flag" forest situations such as mountainous or steep terrain, river and coastal areas and swamp ecosystems, as well as the special case of mountainous small islands. It addresses the protection of municipal water supplies and emerging systems of payment for watershed services. This state-of-knowledge publication will be on interest to a broad range of technical experts, scientists and decision-makers.


Learning from Landscapes: arborvitae special issue

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, October 2008

This arborvitae special reviews current best practice assessing landscape values based upon on-the-ground experiences in tropical developing countries.


The potential of forest reserves for augmenting the protected area network in Africa

Author(s): Neil Burgess, Colby Loucks, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Oryx, 41:2 151-159, April 2007

The protected area network of Africa has grown from nothing to more than 2 million km2 over the past 100 years. The network is considerable; but gaps remain in some biomes and priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Forest reserves managed by Forest Departments are typically excluded from global protected area lists, but in Africa are found in 23 countries and could add considerably to the conservation estate. This paper discusses how some African forest reserves have a legally defined role in biodiversity conservation, and are strictly protected; and thus fit criteria for protected areas. By working with African forest departments we can help develop a more comprehensive protected area network without creating additional new reserves.


Five Years of Implementing Forest Landscape Restoration - Lessons to Date

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Mark Aldrich
Publisher: WWF, 2007

In June 2006, some of the key figures involved in implementing forest landscape restoration (FLR) within WWF came together for a study tour in Spain and Portugal, to exchange experiences, discuss what is and is not working, compile some of the lessons and identify future challenges. The publication starts by summarising the key lessons identified by the group, then discusses each in more detail, and ends with some key conclusions. Recommendations are made on the way forward for implementation of forest restoration at a landscape scale, designed to guide forest practitioners, conservationists and policymakers alike. The report in available in English and French.


Forest Quality: Assessing forests at a landscape scale

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Rodolphe Schlaepfer, William Jackson, Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Earthscan, 2006

A manual summarising ten years' work on defining and finding methods to measure forest quality around the world. Many practical examples and case studies. The book proposes a method for assessing forest quality at a landscape scale, through working with stakeholders to identify important aspects of quality and proposing ways of assessing these. It divides "quality" into three main elements: authenticity, environmental benefits and social and economic benefits.


Closing the Gap: Creating ecologically representative protected areas systems - CBD Technical Series number 24

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Jeffrey Parrish
Publisher: Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Environment Programme, 2006

Outlines a methodology for carrying out a national-scale gap analysis to identify potential protected areas, in line with commitments in the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas. Includes examples from experts around the world.


Measuring sustainable use: A draft methodology for including areas with biodiversity-compatible management strategies in ecoregion planning

Author(s): By Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: The Nature Conservancy, 2005

It is now widely recognised that protected areas cannot protect the world’s biodiversity on their own. Networks of protected areas need to be integrated with other 'conserved areas', to build up biodiversity compatible mosaics of land and water, which in total support biodiversity. One particular challenge is how the rather nebulous concept of 'sustainable use' can be measured, along with its contribution to biodiversity conservation plans.

The Nature Conservancy plans to track the status of sustainable use areas across South America, Central America and parts of Asia Pacific in the next few years. This discussion paper outlines some proposals for how The Nature Conservancy could start to measure and map the conserved areas that provide benefits to biodiversity.

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Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees

Author(s): Edited by Stephanie Mansourian, Daniel Vallauri and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Springer, 2005

The importance of restoration continues to grow, and this book integrates the restoration of forest functions into landscape conservation plans, considering both the social and ecological functions of forests. It represents the collective body of knowledge and experience of WWF and its many partners. It is hoped that it will be invaluable to all of those working in the field, serving as a first stop for practitioners and researchers in any organization or region and as a key reference on the subject. Along with concise, practical information for a variety of specific systems and issues, it gives many suggestions for further research.


Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley, David Baldock, Robert Nasi and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 2005

Paper for a special meeting of the Royal Society in July 2004, looking at options for measuring progress in biodiversity conservation outside protected areas, focusing particularly on forests and farmland.


Conservation Landscapes: Whose Landscapes? Whose Trade-Offs?

Author(s): By Stewart Maginnis, William Jackson and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Columbia University Press, 2004

Chapter in the book Getting Biodiversity Projects to Work: Towards More Effective Conservation and Development (Edited by Thomas O. McShane and Michael P. Wells). Looks at the concept of “landscape” as a useful scale at which to consider the trade-offs inherent in much conservation and development, discussing different types of landscape and proposing an approach to designing conservation projects at a landscape scale.


Deadwood: Living Forests

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley and Daniel Vallauri
Publisher: WWF, October 2004

Report for the WWF European Programme detailing the importance of veteran trees and deadwood to forest ecology, and the current biodiversity crisis created by intensive management that removes deadwood from forest ecosystems. Up to a third of European forest species and reliant on veteran trees and deadwood, and many of these are currently under threat.


Integrating Forest Protection, Management and Restoration at a Landscape Scale

Author(s): 13 authors including Nigel Dudley
Publisher: September 2003

Protected areas, good forest management and forest landscape restoration address different aspects of forest conservation and development, but interact in the field. The paper describes steps needed to integrate them into a coherent landscape approach.

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A Monitoring and Evaluation System for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Central Truong Son Landscape

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Nguyen Cu and Vuong Tien Manh
Publisher: 2003

A joint publication from the Government of Vietnam and the WWF Indochina Programme, outlining a system for monitoring social and environmental progress in a priority conservation landscape in Central Vietnam, developed in association with local stakeholders.

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Biological Diversity, Tree Species Composition and Environmental Protection in Regional FRA-2000

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: 2003

Analysis of responses relating to biodiversity and conservation from the year 2000 Forest Resource Assessment for temperate and boreal countries, published by the United National Economic Commission for Europe and the Food and Agricultural Organization.

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Forest Renaissance

Author(s): Michael Garforth and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: January 2003

A paper commissioned by the Forest Enterprise, the UK state forestry body and WWF UK, which examines how Forest Enterprise has integrated the commitments made at the 1992 Earth Summit into its strategy and operations and looks at some next steps in addressing environmental and social concerns in the coming decade.


Future Fires: Perpetuating problems of the past

Author(s): Numerous authors, edited by Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN and WWF, 2003

An overview of forest fires and a summary of a new “Framework for Fire Management”, developed by the IUCN/WWF Project Firefight, along with case studies and essays about economics, legal and regulatory aspects and priorities for stakeholder action.


A Midsummer Night's Nightmare? The future of UK woodland in the face of climate change

Author(s): Principal author Nigel Dudley, Managing editor Ruth Johnson
Publisher: Woodland Trust, UK, 2001

 This report, published by the Woodland Trust, examines the threats to the UK's native woodland as a result of climate change. It shows that native woods of oak, beech, ash and Caledonian pine are likely to suffer increased stress and declines under expected climate change. There have already been dramatic changes in seasonality amongst UK species, leading to changes in competitive ability and lifecycle. Key responses identified in the report included a landscape-level approach to protection, restoration and extension of native woodlands to build up core areas of high quality woodland that research suggests are most likely to be able to withstand climate changes. The Trust is also calling for members and others to monitor year-by-year changes in leaf and bud break and other seasonal patterns such as arrival of migratory birds and appearance of butterflies and moths.


The UK's Forest Footprint

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton, Nigel Dudley and Paul Toyne
Publisher: WWF-UK, 2001

A report from WWF-UK analysing the impacts of British consumption patterns on the world's forests (the UK's forest footprint), both from an historical perspective and at the present. The report includes a series of case studies showing that the UK is still having a net negative forest footprint on the world's forests. Issues explored included the timber trade, agriculture, invasive species, mining, oil and gas, bioprospecting, climate change, air pollution, tourism, aid and UK government policy. In addition, the reports identifies a range of specific issues where the UK government, business community and general public can help lighten the UK's forest footprint and support the development of more equitable and sustainable forest policies.

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Forests for Life Reaffirming the Vision

Author(s): Edited by William Jackson, Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN/WWF International, Switzerland, 2000


Forest Quality in the Dyfi Valley: Rapid assessment on a landscape scale and development of a vision of forests in the catchment

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN/WWF International and EPFL, Switzerland, 2000

The first full-scale application of the forest quality methodology, drawing on the assessment technique developed in association with WWF, IUCN and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, applied to a small wooded catchment (the Dyfi Valley) in Mid-Wales in the UK. The methodology is described both in theory and in relation

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Needs and Prospects for International Co-operation in Assessing Forest Biodiversity - an overview from WWF

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud
Publisher: Forestry Sciences 51, 31-42, 1998

A paper discussing the biological and social implications of indicators of biodiversity.

Criteria and indicators of forest quality

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Michael Rae

Paper given at the International conference on indicators for sustainable forest management, 24-28 August 1998, Melbourne, Australia convened by IUFRO, CIFOR and FAO, summarising work by WWF and IUCN on forest quality.

Boreal forests: policy challenges for the future

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Don Gilmour and Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud
Publisher: IUCN/WWF International, Switzerland, January 1998

In 1997 IUCN launched a new temperate and boreal forest programme. This arborvitae supplement introduces the ecology and status of the boreal forests, summarises some of the main threats, and proposes key elements in a conservation strategy.

WWF proposals for consideration of forest quality in the Temperate and Boreal Forest Resource Assessment (TBFRA-2000)

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Chris Elliott
Publisher: Finnish Forest Research Institute Research, 1997

Paper in the Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultations on Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 in Cooperation with ECE and UNEP with the Support of the Government of Finland (Kotka III), edited Aarne Nyyssonen and Anne Ahti, Finnish Forest Research Institute Research Paper 620

Case Study: Forest biodiversity

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Bionet and IUCN, New York, 1997

Paper in Report of the Sixth Global Biodiversity Forum 1997: UN Headquarters, New York. Edited by Sheldon Cohen and Stanley G Burgiel.

Criteria of forest quality and forest planning at a landscape level

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: XI World Forestry Congress 13-22 October 1997, Antalya, Turkey, 1997


The Year the World Caught Fire

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud
Publisher: WWF International, Switzerland, 1997

Report produced during the major forest fires of 1997, giving a global overview of events and making recommendations for action.

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Recent changes in Latvian forest policy and their implications for conservation

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Quarterly Journal of Forestry 91, 149-152, April 1997

Global Megatrends in Forest Quality

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud
Publisher: WWF International, Switzerland, 1997

Paper produced for a meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development identifying a series of likely trends in forest policy

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The role of NGOs in the forest debate

Author(s): Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: XI World Forestry Congress 13-22 October 1997, Antalya, Turkey, 1997


Forests for Life

Author(s): Edited by Nigel Dudley, Don Gilmour and Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud
Publisher: WWF and IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 1996

A joint global forest policy between IUCN and WWF, drawn up over 3 years, with a vision for forests in the future and a series of goals and objectives. The book formed the basis of the two organisations' forest policy.

Conservation of Boreal Forests under Conditions of Climate Change

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud and Adam Markham
Publisher: Silva Fennica 30(2-3), 379-383, 1996

Forests and People

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Forests and People in Rural Areas Initiative Scotland, Perth, 1995

A report analysing initiatives and providing recommendations regarding community forestry sponsored by the UK Forestry Commission.

Current initiatives to conserve the world's forests

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 89, 21-26, January 1995

Timber and Certification: Trade incentives for sustainable forest management

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF UK, 1995

An assessment for WWF UK produced as a submission to the Commission on Sustainable Development.

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Forest quality in Central and Eastern Europe: a new set of criteria for measuring forest quality

Author(s): Nigel Dudley

In Conservation of Forests in Central Europe: Proceedings of the WWF Workshop held in Zvolen, July 7-9 1994, edited by Jozef Paulenka and Ladislav Paule, Arbora Publishers, Zvolen, Slovakia, 1994



From its inception in 1995 until 2004 (25 issues in total); editors of the joint forest newsletter of IUCN and WWF International, Switzerland.


Forest Networks

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: The Environmentalist 15, 182-187, 1994

A Forest Memorandum

Author(s): Edited by Nigel Dudley
Publisher: UK Forest Network, 1994

Joint statement from over 30 UK conservation organisations on forest policy issues.

Forests in Trouble -The Status of the World's Temperate Forests

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF International, Switzerland, 1992

 A book based on a 2-year review of the status of and threats to temperate and boreal forests of the world with case studies from the Pacific northwest of the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Tasmania, Russia, Sweden, Finland and Chile.

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