Protected Areas

Global Land Outlook: Working Paper. Protected areas

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Kathy MacKinnon
Publisher: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), 2017

A working paper for the Global Land Outlook Report, this paper stresses that protected areas are critical tools in maintaining biodiversity and, if well managed, are proven to be effective for both conservation and maintaining the ecosystem services on which human livelihoods and welfare depend. The modern protected area system was developed largely during the latter part of the twentieth and in the twenty-first century, and can be maintained under a range of management and governance types.

Link: https://static1.squarespace.com/

Half-Bhutan: The Evolution and Effectiveness of Protected Areas in a Country Recognizing Nature Needs Half

Author(s): Sonam Wangchuk, Dechen Lham, Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: International Journal of Wilderness 23.1

A short overview of an assessment of management effectiveness carried out for all the protected areas in the Kingdom of Bhutan between 2014 and 2016.

Link:   Download PDF

PARKS 23.1

Author(s): Marc Hockings and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN WCPA, 2017

The final issue of PARKS under Equilibrium's editorship. The issue contains the usual diversity of papers including one authored by Kasandra-Zorica Ivanić, Andrea Štefan, Deni Porej and Sue Stolton on the implementation of the participatory assessment of ecosystem services in the Dinaric Arc of Europe to support protected area management.

Link: parksjournal.com

Defining marine protected areas: A response to Horta e Costa et al.

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Jon Day, Dan Laffoley, Marc Hockings and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Marine Policy 77 (2017)

A response to a paper by Horta e Costa et al. (Marine Policy 72 (2), 2016) suggesting a new way of defining marine protected areas based around an analysis of uses (primarily fishing, but also aquaculture, boating and anchoring). This paper argues the importance of having a global protected area classification system that includes both marine and terrestrial (many protected areas contain both); the challenge of generating accurate data, which would be increased by the proposals, and the multiple objectives of protected areas beyond those considered in the classification system. Furthermore, the paper notes that the current system was determined after a lengthy consultation process, involving hundreds of professionals around the world, and should not therefore be casually abandoned.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com

Bhutan State of Parks 2016

Author(s): Prepared by: Dechen Lham and Sonam Wangchuk (Wildlife Conservation Division) and Sue Solton and Nigel Dudley (Equilibrium Research)
Publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Bhutan, 2016

This report provides, for the very first time an overview of the status and effectiveness of protected areas in Bhutan, based on the development and implementation of a tool for assessing the management effectiveness of the protected area network – the Bhutan Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool Plus (Bhutan METT +) May 2016. The overall results from implementing the Bhutan METT + show that protected areas in Bhutan are well managed. However, when the results are broken down into the six elements of management effectiveness suggested by IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas, the assessment shows their effectiveness is limited by a low level of resources (both financial and appropriate technical resources) and by gaps in the monitoring and research data, which limits the ability to understand the impact of conservation, react to changing conditions and undertake adaptive management to improve efficiency and effectiveness.

Link: www.moaf.gov.bt/

Defining marine protected areas: A response to Horta e Costa et al.

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Jon Day, Dan Laffoley, Marc Hockings and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Marine Policy, 2016

A response to the paper by Horta e Costa et al. (Marine Policy 72 (2), 2016) which suggest a new way of defining marine protected areas based around an analysis of uses (primarily fishing, but also aquaculture, boating and anchoring). We believe there are strong arguments to stay with the existing IUCN classification system and outline these in this response.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/

Factors influencing successful implementation of Biosphere Reserves in Vietnam: Challenges, opportunities and lessons learnt

Author(s): Chu Van Cuong,Peter Dart, Nigel Dudley and Marc Hockings
Publisher: Environmental Science & Policy 67 (2017) 16–26

The results of an analysis of legal documents and an online survey with 41 managers and staff members of the Biosphere Reserve Management Boards and National Man and the Biosphere Committee in Vietnam on the way biosphere reserve principles are applied. The paper finds that although the reserves conform to the Biosphere Reserve conceptual model, the operation and management effectiveness of sites is hindered by the predominant practice of sectoral and top-down control that is at odds with the intent of biosphere reserve management. The relatively weak legal status of biosphere reserves within the national framework is counter balanced by their more direct management by, and support from the autonomous provincial and city authorities.Future sustainability and effectiveness of the biosphere reserves will depend on the implementation of appropriate, locally-based management solutions.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com

PARKS 22.2

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2016

This latest issues of PARKS includes papers related to protected area governance, best practices in protected area site management, the results of a 40-country survey on ranger insurance schemes and an editorial on how IUCN and WCPA are delivering the Promise of Sydney, the ambitious action plan from the IUCN World Parks Congress 2014..

Link: parksjournal.com

Evidence for Biodiversity Conservation in Protected Landscapes

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Adrian Phillips, Thora Amend, Jessica Brown and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Land 2016 (5:38)

This paper reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IUCN management category V (protected landscapes and seascapes) in protecting wild biodiversity by drawing on published information and a set of case studies.

Link: www.mdpi.com

METT Handbook: A guide to using the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT)

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF UK, 2016

It is now fifteen years since the first edition of the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) was published.The METT has since become the commonest protected area management effectiveness tool, used in over 2,500 protected areas covering over 4.2 million square kilometres in at least127 countries.Experience has shown however that many users do not apply the METT as effectively as possible. This handbook aims to improve the efficacy with which the METT is applied. It includes detailed additional guidance on the application of the METT and best practices for developing, implementing and using the results of the METT.

Link: www.protectedplanet.net/

Climate Adaptation Methodology for Protected Areas (CAMPA)

Author(s): Belokurov A., Baskinas L., Biyo R., Clausen A., Dudley N., Guevara O., Lumanog J., Rakotondrazafy H., Ramahery V., Salao C., Stolton S., and L. Zogib
Publisher: WWF, 2016

The Climate Adaptation Methodology for Protected Areas (CAMPA) combines ecosystem and community-based approaches to adaptation and uses a participatory approach that aims to build consensus amongst stakeholders on the actions necessary to address the current and potential impacts of climate change. This manual, the result of several years work, describes the methodology in detail and includes summarise of lessons learned in three case studies from its field-testing in six coastal and marine protected areas in Colombia, Madagascar and the Philippines.

Link: wwf.panda.org/

Achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 to improve the performance of protected areas and conserve freshwater biodiversity

Author(s): Diego Juffe-Bignoli,Ian Harrison,Stuart HM Butchart,Rebecca Flitcroft,Virgilio Hermoso,Harry Jonas,Anna Lukasiewicz,Michele Thieme,Eren Turak,Heather Bingham,James Dalton,William Darwall,Marine Deguignet,Nigel Dudley,Royal Gardner,Jonathan Higgins,Ritesh Kumar,Simon Linke,G Randy Milton,Jamie Pittock,Kevin G Smith,Arnout van Soesbergen
Publisher: Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 2016. 26: 133-151

Reports on implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets often fail to consider explicitly freshwater ecosystem processes and habitats, the pressures upon them, and therefore the full range of requirements and actions needed to sustain them. This paper therefore provides an overview of the current progress and key gaps for meeting Aichi Target 11 for freshwater biodiversity.

Link: onlinelibrary.wiley.com

PARKS 22.1

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2016

Issue 22.1 of IUCN WCPA’s peer review journal PARKS contains a diverse set of papers from around the world (the Amazon, Iceland, Japan, Australia, Costa Rica and Luxembourg). Subject areas include overviews of the protected area system in Iceland and Luxembourg, and a discussion of how Christian monastic lands contribute to conservation. Management focused papers include an approach to landscape conservation planning, a review of nature-based tourism, community benefits assessments and the assessment of good governance. The editorial features a major initiative from the Amazon region to show the role of protected areas as natural solutions to climate change.

Link: parksjournal.com/

Protected Area Diversity and Potential for Improvement (chapter in: Protected Areas: Are They Safeguarding Biodiversity?)

Author(s): N. Dudley and S. Stolton
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016

An overview of ways to increase the potential of protected areas. This chapter describes the full variety of protected area options; provides examples of how countries are using different approaches to build and maintain their protected area systems and identifies some gaps in our knowledge and necessary next steps.

Link: eu.wiley.com/

PARKS 21.2

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2015

This issue of IUCN WCPA’s peer review journal PARKS includes papers from Africa (Ghana/Zambia), North America and South America (Paraguay), Asia (India/Nepal) and Australia. Papers cover a diverse range of topics including Indigenous protected areas, buffer zone and local community management, tourism, reptilian conservation and the urgent need to connect people to nature.

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-22-2/

Bolder science needed now for protected areas

Author(s): James E.M. Watson, Emily S. Darling, Oscar Venter, Martine Maron, Joe Walston, Hugh P. Possingham, Nigel Dudley, Marc Hockings, Megan Barnes andThomas M. Brooks
Publisher: Conservation Biology, 2015

A new multi-authored paper identifying what the conservation science community can do to help ensure protected areas remain relevant and the achievement of the goal set out in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Target 11 is not simply an end in itself, but generates genuine benefits for biodiversity.

Link: onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Natural Solutions: Protected areas are vital for human health and well-being

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Diana Allen and Kathryn Campbell
Publisher: IUCN, 2015

The latest briefing from the IUCN WCPA Natural Solutions Specialist Group (of which Nigel is chair) outlines the role that protected areas can play in securing a range of ecosystem services beneficial to human health. The briefing outlines the main areas of benefit and explains the advantages of protected areas in comparison to other natural areas.

Link: www.iucn.org/

Protected Area Governance and Management (chapter 6)

Author(s): Principal authors:Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: ANU Press, 2015

Protected Area Governance and Management synthesizes current knowledge and cutting-edge thinking from the diverse branches of practice and learning relevant to protected area governance and management. Chapter 6 provides an overview of all the values and benefits of protected areas and then provides an introduction on how to understand and manage these benefits.

Link: press.anu.edu.au/

Private governance of protected areas in Africa:Case studies, lessons learnt and conditions of success

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, 2015

With the support of the French Agency for Development (AfD), IUCN's African Protected Areas & Conservation (Papaco) is conducting a series of studies on governance of protected areas in Africa. Our contribution is a study on private protected areas.

Link: papaco.org/

PARKS 21.1

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2015

One of the legacies of the 2014 World Parks Congress will be the publication of papers in PARKS. Many sessions at the congress reported on new research or lessons learned and best practices in protected area management. Issue 21.1, the first since the congress, includes papers on the Sydney Parklands from Stream 3 and on lessons learned in Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) from Kenya and Latin America in Stream 1. Other papers report on using oblique aerial photography for monitoring protected areas in Madagscar; papers on the Zhangye National Wetland Park in China, Dhimurru Indigenous Protected Area in Australia and finally a paper on freshwater management in Uttarakhand, India.

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-21-1-5/

Protected Areas as Tools for Disaster Risk Reduction: A handbook for practitioners

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Camille Buyck, Naoya Furuta, Claire Pedrot, Fabrice Renaud and Karen Sudmeier-Rieux
Publisher: Ministry of Environment, Japan and IUCN, 2015

First in a planned series of short handbooks describing how protected areas can be used as tools for a variety of ecosystem and cultural services. The current volume looks at ways in which protected areas can help in disaster risk reduction (DRR), buffering communities against a range of natural hazards, including storms, floods, sea-level rise, tsunamis, drought and landslides. The manual provides a series of tools to help practitioners identify benefits and factor them into protected area planning and DRR strategies.

Link: portals.iucn.org/

An assessment of the role of protected landscapes in conserving biodiversity in Europe

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Urban and Landscape Perspectives, Springer Press,18, 2015

The chapter summarises evidence on the role of IUCN category V protected areas (“protected landscapes”) in biodiversity conservation, reviewing published evidence to date and including case studies from Croatia, German and Spain.

Link: link.springer.com/

The performance and potential of protected areas

Author(s): James E.M. Watson, Nigel Dudley, Daniel B. Segan and Marc Hockings
Publisher: Nature 515: 67-73, 2014

The authors wrote a commissioned insight piece for the journal Nature, outlining the status of protected areas worldwide; the changing political climate in which they exist; their wide and frequently undervalued ecosystem, social and cultural benefits; and widespread government retreat from supporting protected areas: the paper finished with a marked increase in global support for these vital conservation tools. Written as a contribution to debates at the World Parks Congress, the paper has already been downloaded more than 20,000 times.

Link: www.nature.com/nature/journal/

The Futures of Privately Protected Areas

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Kent Redford and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, 2014

Equilibrium worked with Kent Redford, the World Commission on Protected Areas Specialist Group on Private Protected Areas and a collection of experts from around the world to produce a technical report on the role, definition, significance and futures of protected areas managed by individuals, NGOs, companies, religious bodies and research institutes. The report includes 17 case studies from countries around the world, plus the outputs from an experts’ meeting held in Bristol UK, in late 2013.

Link: www.iucn.org/

Putting Nature on the Map

Author(s): Roger Crofts, Nigel Dudley, Chris Mahon, Richard Partington, Adrian Phillips, Stewart Pritchard and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN National Committee for the UK, 2014

The aim of the Putting Nature on the Map project (PNOTM) was to use the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories to identify all the places in the UK that meet the IUCN definition of a protected area; and then to assign to them one of the six IUCN protected area management categories and four protected area governance types. The project had two significant impacts: it standardised and enriched the way in which different management approaches to protected areas were perceived in the UK and it brought several thousand privately protected areas, managed by NGOs, more fully into the national system. The report, which is also available in summary form, describes the process and results.

Link: www.iucn-uk.org/

WWF Protected Areas Assessment in the Dinaric Arc

Author(s): WWF Mediterranean Programme
Publisher: WWF, 2014

Equilibrium has been working with WWF in the Dinaric Arc (former Yugoslavia and Albania) on a survey of the various benefits from over 50 national parks, using the Protected Area Benefits Assessment Tool (PA-BAT) that we developed some years ago. This leaflet, produced for the 2014 World Parks Congress, offers preliminary results; a full report and accompanying papers will be prepared in 2015.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/

PARKS 20.2

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2014

A bumper issue released at the 2014 World Parks Congress. This issues includes an article on the future of protected areas in the USA (Revisiting Leopold: Resource Stewardship in the National Parks) with responses from protected area agency directors from around the world plus policy papers on the interpretation of the CBD Target 11's concept of other effective area-based conservation measures; conservation trust funds; geoconservation and empowering the next generation. Other papers on best practice protected area management include contributions from Sikkim, India; Coastal East Africa; the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mount Cameroon.

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-20-2/

Where now for protected areas? Setting the stage forthe 2014 World Parks Congress

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Craig Groves, Kent H. Redford and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Oryx, Fauna & Flora International, 48:04, 2014

In another paper preparing for the 2014 IUCN World Parks Congress, we here review the six most important changes affecting protected areas over the last two decades: (1) a new protected area definition with more emphasis on nature conservation; (2) a plurality of management and governance models; (3) acknowledgement of wider protected area benefits beyond nature conservation; (4) greater social safeguards for protected areas; (5) evidence that protected areas are effective conservation tools; and (6) a new emphasis on larger protected areas, transboundary protected areas, connectivity conservation and landscape approaches. The paper concludes by considering fresh challenges as a result of policy changes and the global criminal wildlife trade.

Link: journals.cambridge.org/

Conserving dryland biodiversity: a future vision of sustainable dryland development

Author(s): Masumi Gudka, Jonathan Davies, Lene Poulsen, Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen, Kathy MacKinnon, Nigel Crawhall, William D. Henwood, Nigel Dudley and Jessica Smith
Publisher: Biodiversity, Taylor & Francis, 15:2-3, 2014

One of two papers we have worked on recently on drylands, this paper acknowledges that drylands offer significant opportunities for achieving both conservation and development objectives simultaneously, but that a more nuanced vision of sustainably managed drylands is needed. This should reflects social and ecological realities and provide a framework against which policies and investments can be assessed. Such a vision should be based on the intersection between sustainable land management and biodiversity conservation, which encompasses the following four components: adapting green economic growth to the drylands; conservation and sustainable management of dryland biodiversity; and health as the basis for secure food and water provision; and resilience and risk management in uncertain environments.

Link: www.tandfonline.com/

Lessons learned from the loss of a flagship: The extinction of the Javan rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus from Vietnam

Author(s): Sarah Maria Brook, Nigel Dudley, Simon Peter Mahood, Gert Polete, A. Christy Williams, J.W. Duckworth, Thinh Van Ngoc and Barney Long
Publisher: Biological Conservation, 174, 2014

The last Javan rhino in mainland Southeast Asia was killed, probably by poachers, in 2010: the loss of a unique sub-species. This paper, led by Sarah Brook, examines how and why the extinction occurred, due to lack of political will, confused response strategies and growing pressure from the illegal wildlife trade. It suggests steps needed to avoid similar losses in the future.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/

The role of protected areas in supplying ten critical ecosystem services in drylands: a review

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Kathy MacKinnon and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Biodiversity, Taylor and Francis, 15, 2014

Protected areas in drylands embrace a full range of management approaches, from strict protection to ‘protected landscapes’ where conservation is integrated with traditional lifestyles. They vary from government-run national parks to ancient examples of community conserved areas, such as the hima of the Arabian Peninsula. This paper presents a detailed review of options for dryland conservation, with numerous examples from dryland regions of the world, along with a typology of ecosystem services maintained.

Link: www.tandfonline.com/

PARKS 20.1

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2014

This issues starts with an editorial introduction to the forthcoming World Parks Congress in Australia in 2014. A diversity of papers follows on protected area management include: community involvement and joint operations aid effective anti-poaching in Tanzania; community engagement and implementation of a conservation plan in the Solomon Islands and fire management in a changing landscape: a case study from Lopé National Park, Gabon. Two papers provide overviews of conservation approaches in temperate indigenous grassland in South Africa and the European NATURA 2000 protected area approach. Research papers look at visitors’ characteristics and attitudes towards Iran’s national parks and participatory conservation and the patterns and extent of threats to the protected areas of Bangladesh: the need for a relook at conservation strategies. And finally an overview paper looks at realizing the potential of protected areas as natural solutions for climate change adaptat

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-20-1/

PARKS 19.2

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2013

Papers on the responding to disasters - the role of protected areas; Nature needs half: a necessary and hopeful new agenda for protected areas; The Serengeti of Asia: conservation in two major protected areas of the eastern plains landscape protected area complex, Cambodia; The vulnerability of communities around the marine protected areas of Bamboung, Cayar and Joal-Fadiouth in Senegal: places of adaptation to climate change; Improving the sustainable operation of a world heritage site: increasing energy efficiency and implementing a renewable energy system on Aldabra Atoll; Multi-level co-management in government-designated protected areas – opportunities to learn from models in mainland Southeast Asia; The three new R’s for protected areas: repurpose, reposition and reinvest; Transboundary protected areas management: experiences from W-Arly-Pendjari parks in West Africa and a draft code of practice for research and monitoring in protected areas.

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-19-2/

Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards Version 1.1

Author(s): Craig Bruce, Barney Long and Mike Baltzer of WWF; Vinod Mathur of the Wildlife Institute of India; and Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley of Equilibrium Research.
Publisher: WWF, 2013

Conservation Assured (CA) is a new conservation tool to set minimum standards for effective management of target species. The first species-specific CA standards are for the tiger. The Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS) scheme provides an incentive to those responsible for tiger conservation areas in the 13 tiger range countries to improve the effectiveness of management. Launched in 2013 after two years of development, CA|TS is now being implemented in tiger range countries and the first CA|TS sites will be approved in 2014.

Link: www.conservationassured.com/

Natural Solutions: Protected Areas Protecting People: A tool for Disaster Risk Reduction

Author(s): N. Dudley, K MacKinnon and S Stolton
Publisher: IUCN, 2013

Four-page paper summarising the role of protected areas in mitigating a range of natural disasters, published to coincide with the first Asia Parks Congress in November 2012. Available in English and Japanese

Link: www.iucn.org

IUCN WCPA Best Practice Guidance on Recognising Protected Areas and Assigning Management Categories and Governance Types

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Peter Shadie and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, 2013

The IUCN protected area management categories is a core document for the development, reporting and understanding of protected areas worldwide. In this reprint of the 2008 categories new text on Recognising Protected Areas and Assigning Management Categories and Governance Types, drawing on global best practice and extensive consultation, provides guidance on implementing the categories.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_assignment_1.pdf

Governance of Protected Areas: From understanding to action

Author(s): Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Nigel Dudley, Tilman Jaeger, Barbara Lassen, Neema Pathak Broome, Adrian Phillips and Trevor Sandwith
Publisher: IUCN, 2013

This IUCN Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.20 is an important tool to help enhance governance diversity and quality for the world's protected area systems. Part 1 provides an overview of the four different protected area governance types recognised by IUCN, featuring numerous examples from all over the world. It also addresses the complex question of what constitutes good governance in various circumstances. Part 2 offers practical guidance for countries willing to embark on the process of assessing, evaluating and improving governance for their systems of protected areas or for individual protected area sites.

Link: www.iucn.org/Governance-of-Protected-Areas-From-understanding-to-action

Social and Economic Benefits of Protected Areas: An Assessment Guide

Author(s): edited by Marianne Kettunen and Patrick ten Brink
Publisher: Earthscan, 2013

The manual describes a detailed assessment methodology for use in protected areas, backed up by many case studies and examples. It includes both scoping assessments and more detailed assessment methods for the most important ecosystem services, assessments of both individual sites and protected area systems, and advice on communicating results.  

Link: www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415632843/

Planificación del manejo de áreas protegidas en América Latina: Un enfoque basado en los Estándares Abiertos para la Práctica de la Conservación (Protected ar

Author(s): Anon
Publisher: TNC and CATIE, 2013

This handbook offers a series of practical tools which aims to empower those who manage protected areas to develop their own management plans. Available only in Spanish, the publication is based on a draft version in English developed some years ago by José Courrau, Sue Stolton, Nigel Dudley, Jora Young, Dan Salzer, Cristina Lasch, Oscar Maldonado and Jamison Ervin.

Link: catie.ac.cr/manual_areas_protegidas/

PARKS 19.1

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Eds)
Publisher: IUCN, 2013

Papers on the CBD protected area targets, tigers in India, landscape approaches in Bhutan, India and Nepal, livelihood conflicts in Ghana, recent migrants and a protected area in Australia, applying IUCN protected area management categories in the UK, elephant corridor in Kenya, benefit sharing in Zambia, marine protected areas in the Pacific, and lessons from large scale conservation in Australia.

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-19-1/

The High Ground: Biocultural diversity and conservation of sacred natural sites in the Eastern Himalayas

Author(s): Liza Higgins-Zogib, Nigel Dudley and Tariq Aziz (editors)
Publisher: WWF, 2012

Series of articles emerging from a meeting between religious scholars and conservation biologists in Thimpu, Bhutan. Authors consider the role of sacred natural sites in conservation, the likely impacts of climate change in the region and the opportunities for Buddhism to help address threats to the environment.

Link: awsassets.panda.org/downloads/the_high_ground.pdf

Putting Natural Solutions to Work: Mainstreaming Protected Areas in Climate Change Responses

Author(s): Kathy MacKinnon, Nigel Dudley and Trevor Sandwith (editors)
Publisher: IUCN and BfN, 2012

Results of a workshop on the Island of Vilm, Germany, which examined options for integrating protected areas into national climate change response strategies. Includes case studies from Mexico, Costa Rica, SE Europe, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, South Africa, the USA and Canada, plus a draft tool for assessing adaptation and mitigation opportunities offered by individual protected areas.

Link: www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/BfN-Skript-321.pdf

Guidelines for Applying the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories to Marine Protected Areas

Author(s): J. Day, N.Dudley, M.Hockings, G. Holmes, D.Laffoley, S. Stolton and S. Wells
Publisher: IUCN, 2012

Detailed guidance on the application of the IUCN protected area definition and management categories in marine protected areas, available in English, French and Spanish. The guidelines expand on the 2008 Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories, discussing how these can be applied in a marine context.

Link: www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/marine

PARKS 18.1

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (editors)
Publisher: IUCN, 2012

Re-launched journal, now as an open access, online and peer reviewed journal covering all aspects of protected area management. This issue contains papers on the CBD's Aichi targets, New Zealand grasslands, fencing PAs in Africa, great green macaw conservation in Costa Rica, motivations for visitation in Canadanian PAs, crop wild relatives, cultural landscape approach in Australia, Pacific island conservation, marine protected area startegies and hunting and PAs in Iran.

Link: parksjournal.com/parks-18-1/

Protected areas: providing natural solutions to 21st Century challenges

Author(s): N. Lopoukhine, N. Crawhall, N. Dudley, P. Figgis, C. Karibuhoye, D. Laffoley, J. Miranda Londoño, K. MacKinnon and T. Sandwith
Publisher: S.A.P.I.EN.S., 5.2, 2012

SAPIENS (Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society), is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary journal focused on integrating knowledge to promote sustainability research. This special issue focussing on the expert commissions of IUCN includes this article from IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas presenting its work on defining and applying the new concept of “nature-based solutions” to global challenges.

Link: sapiens.revues.org/1254

Protected Landscapes and Wild Biodiversity. Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes Series No. 3

Author(s): Editors Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN, 2012

This volume examines more inclusive forms of protected areas, such as ‘protected land- and seascapes’ (category V in IUCN nomenclature), can be an effective tool for biodiversity conservation, and if so when they are likely to be most effective.  It begins what will hopefully be an ongoing process to investigate wild biodiversity within these management approaches and to analyse the scientific and conservation values of these areas in more depth.

Link: www.iucn.org/

Managing Natural World Heritage: World Heritage Resource Manual

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley with Peter Shadie
Publisher: UNESCO / ICCROM / ICOMOS / IUCN, 2012

The goal of this Resource Manual is to help State Parties to manage natural values within World Heritage properties and to help managers understand and incorporate World Heritage concepts and processes into natural site management.

Link: whc.unesco.org/en/activities/

Putting Nature on the Map: Identifying protected areas in the UK. A handbook to help identify protected areas in the UK and assign the IUCN management categories to them

Author(s): IUCN NCUK
Publisher: IUCN NCUK, 2012

In 2008, Nigel Dudley edited IUCN's revised guidance on protected area management categories. At the end of 2009, the Chair of IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) requested the IUCN National Committee for the UK (IUCN NCUK) to apply the revised guidelines in the UK. This resulted in the IUCN NCUK project: Putting Nature on the Map. Developed over a year of consultation, field testing and workshops the Handbook, Putting Nature on the Map: Identifying protected areas in the UK,  provides the guidance needed to help apply the categories in the UK. A draft of the handbook was compiled by Helen Miller and Andy Tasker of Middlemarch. The final version was edited for IUCN NCUK by Adrian Phillips, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley.

Link: www.iucn-uk.org/Projects/ProtectedAreas/

Going Global: IUCN’s Global Program on Protected Areas

Author(s): Nik Lopoukhine, Trevor Sandwith, Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton and Ernesto Enkerlin-Hoeflich
Publisher: George Wright Society, 2012

In Rethinking Protected Areas in a Changing World: Proceedings of the 2011 George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites this paper reviews the current and planned activities of IUCN's work on protected areas.

Link: www.georgewright.org/

Improving management – sharing approaches: Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit

Author(s): Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN and ICCROM, 2012

Short article in the IUCN/ICCROM Capacity Building Newsletter on how the Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit Equilibrium worked on for natural World Heritage sites is increasingly being used in cultural sites.

Link:   Download PDF

National Parks with Benefits: How Protecting the Planet's Biodiversity Also Provides Ecosystem Services

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Liza Higgins-Zogib, Marc Hockings, Kathy MacKinnon, Trevor Sandwith, Sue Stolton
Publisher: Solutions, Volume 2:6, Page 87-95, Nov 2011

Ecosystem services are declining just when their value is being fully appreciated. The world’s protected areas provide the largest single source of secure ecosystem services alongside their more recognized roles of biodiversity conservation and recreation.Yet discussions about protected areas rarely focus on the ecosystem services they provide and from which they could benefit financially. Rather than look at protected areas as preserves cut off from our human activity except as tourist destinations, we need to recognize their broader role in our economies. This article provides an initial overview of how this coujld be done.

Link: www.thesolutionsjournal.com/

Natural solutions: protected areas helping people to cope with climate change

Author(s): Kathy MacKinnon, Nigel Dudley and Trevor Sandwith
Publisher: Oryx, Fauna & Flora International, 45(4), 461–462, 2011

An editorial for the journal Oryx reviewing how protected areas contribute to both mitigation and adaptation strategies by addressing the causes of climate change and helping societies to respond, and adapt, to the changes that are occurring.

Link: journals.cambridge.org/

Ensuring quality and eff ectiveness in protected area management

Author(s): Sue Stolton
Publisher: Protected Areas In-Sight, The Journal of the EUROPARC Federation, 2011

A brief review of the developments in assessing the management effectiveness of protected areas.

Link: www.europarc.org/

Ensuring That Protected Areas Play an Effective Role in Mitigating Climate Change

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Linda Krueger, Kathy MacKinnon, and Sue Stolton
Publisher: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, 2011

A chapter in a new volume on Ecological Consequences of Climate Change: Mechanisms, Conservation, and Management edited by Erik A. Beever, USGS Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Bozeman, Montana, USA; Jerrold L. Belant, Mississippi State University, USA. The chapter looks at some steps needed to make the best use of protected areas within national strategies to address climate change, reviews briefly the financial implications and discuss whether protected areas could be suitable for some new carbon-related funding streams emerging from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and voluntary efforts to reduce carbon emissions.

Link: www.crcpress.com/

Managing for climate change – developing strategies for protected area managers

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation - BFN, 2011

Proceedings of a workshop co-organised by Equilibrium Research at the International Academy for Nature Conservation on the Island of Vilm, Germany which bought together experts from around the world to help develop strategies for protected area managers to understand likely climate change impacts and plan management responses at a site level.

Link: www.bfn.de/

Do protected areas contribute to poverty reduction?

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Stephanie Mansourian, Sue Stolton and Surin Suksuwan
Publisher: Biodiversity 11 (3 & 4), 2010

Protected areas are increasingly expected to contribute to poverty reduction strategies. To find out how realistic this is, we looked at the current and potential roles of protected areas in addressing poverty reduction, by carrying out a comprehensive literature review and by applying a standardised assessment method to a group of protected areas around the world that a previous assessment suggested had strong social values.

Link: www.tandfonline.com/

Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Korea’s Protected Area System

Author(s): Hag Young Heo, M. Hockings, W. W. Shin, H. J. Chung, N. Dudley, P. Shadie, R. Vaisanen, G. Vincent, H. Kim, S. Y. Park and S. W. Yang
Publisher: Journal of National Park Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 169-179 (2010)

This paper outlines the main findings of a study of the management effectiveness of protected areas in South Korea (Republic of Korea). The assessment was conducted at two levels: a site assessment of 39 protected areas, representing about 40% by area of the Korean protected area system and a system-level assessment conducted by an international review team incorporating field visits, interviews with staff and stakeholders and review of relevant documentation.The assessment results generally show that individual protected areas are well managed on any international comparison.

Link: ebook.knps.or.kr/upload/pdf/c0020.pdf

Putting plans to work: IUCN’s commitment to protected areas

Author(s):
Publisher: IUCN-WCPA, 2010

A short full colour booklet released at the CBD's COP-10 in Japan which lays out why IUCN-WCPA think investing in protected areas is important and lays out its commitments to making the vision of the Programme of Work
on Protected Areas a reality.

Link:   Download PDF

The revised IUCN protected area management categories: the debate and ways forward

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Jeffrey D. Parrish, Kent H. Redford and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Oryx, 44(4), 485–490 (copyright 2010 Fauna & Flora International)

A review of the changes made in the IUCN protected area management categories revision in 2008. The debates that accompanied the revision process encapsulate some of the key issues and challenges surrounding protected area policy and practice in the early 21st century. This paper summarises these debates and offer some policy recommendations for the international conservation community.

Link: journals.cambridge.org/

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) Report for Local and Regional Policy Makers (Chapter 7)

Author(s): Augustin Berghöfer and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: TEEB, 2010

This chapter on Ecosystem Services and Protected Areas in the TEEB report for Local and Regional Policy Makers argues that protected areas are an important resource for policy makers and can be a benefit, not a burden to local populations. By considering the ecosystem services they provide, local policy makers can identify these benefits, and provide motivation for the establishment  of protected areas (PA) beyond conservation – that of enhancing local human well-being.

Link: www.teebtest.org

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) Report for Local and Regional Policy Makers (Chapter 5)

Author(s): Simron Jit Singh and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: TEEB, 2010

This chapter on Ecosystem Services in Rural Areas and Natural Resource Management  in the TEEB report for Local and Regional Policy Makers notes the relevance of an ecosystem service perspective in increasing the potential for effective natural resource management. It argues that such an approach is not only ecologically sound, but also holds economic benefits both for those directly dependent on them and for the national economy in terms of medium and long-term cost and benefits.

Link: www.teebtest.org

Protected Area Management Effectiveness in Europe: A Review of Application, Methods and Results

Author(s): Christoph Nolte, Fiona Leverington, Anne Kettner, Melitta Marr, Greta Nielsen, Bastian Bomhard, Sue Stolton, Susanne Stoll-Kleemann, Marc Hockings
Publisher: BFN Skripten 271a, 2010

The European Study on protected area management effectiveness  evaluation was conducted between May 2009 and March 2010. Its main purpose was to provide an overview of existing protected areas evaluation in Europe with respect to extent of application and methodologies.The report includes a synthesise of the results of the evaluation data gathered with respect to overall management effectiveness, strengths and weaknesses, threats and recommendations.

Link: www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/Skript_271a.pdf

Arguments for Protected Areas: Multiple Benefits for Conservation and Use

Author(s): Edited By Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Earthscan, 2010

Summarising and building upon the last 10 years of the Arguments for Protection project, this book provides a concise and persuasive overview of the values of protected areas. It is written by over fifty contributing authors from across the world, presenting a global perspective on the subject. As such it is a contribution to advocacy for new protected areas, can help secure existing protected areas and ensure that management is appropriate and well-informed. It examines a wide range of values that are maintained in protected wild and cultural landscapes, including food, water and materials; health; tourism; cultural and spiritual values; and buffering capacity against climate change and natural disasters. The book also considers the role of protected areas in poverty reduction strategies, their relationship with traditional and indigenous people and in fostering conflict resolution through peace parks initiatives.

Link: www.routledge.com

Valuing Protected Areas

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Stephanie Mansourian and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: World Bank’s Global Environment Facility Coordination Team, 2010

A review of 19 different values of protected areas; this report highlights the numerous values that protected areas can offer, and details some of the World Bank’s contributions to these different dimensions of protected area management. This report was launched by the World Bank at the Global Environment Facility (GEF)Assembly in May 2010.

Link:   Download PDF

Proceedings for the Healthy Parks Healthy People Congress: Protected Areas Benefit Assessment Tool

Author(s):
Publisher: Parks Victoria, 2010

Equilibrium Research ran two sessions at the Healthy Parks Healthy People Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2010 providing a training session on the Protected Areas Benefit Assessment Tool and launching our new book Arguments for Protected Areas at a workshop session. The presentations are included in the Congress proceedings.

Link: www.healthyparkshealthypeoplecongress.org/

Proceedings for the Healthy Parks Healthy People Congress: Arguments for Protected Areas

Author(s):
Publisher: Parks Victoria, 2010

Equilibrium Research ran two sessions at the Healthy Parks Healthy People Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2010 providing a training session on the Protected Areas Benefit Assessment Tool and launching our new book Arguments for Protected Areas at a workshop session. The presentations are included in the Congress proceedings.

Link: www.healthyparkshealthypeoplecongress.org/

Protected Area Management Effectiveness in Europe Supplementary Report: Overview of European Methodologies

Author(s): Fiona Leverington, Anne Kettner, Christoph Nolte, Melitta Marr, Sue Stolton, Helena Pavese, Susanne Stoll-Kleemann, Marc Hockings
Publisher: BFN Skripten 271b, 2010

A summary of the methodologies disucssed in the report Protected Area Management Effectiveness in Europe: A Review of Application, Methods and Results

Link: www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/Skript_271b.pdf

Vital Sites: The Contribution of Protected Areas to Human Health

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF, 2010

This the seventh report in the Arguments for Protection series, takes as its starting place the health crisis caused by environmental destruction and discusses the role protected areas can play in promoting well-being.Healthy ecosystems in general, and protected areas in particular, can play a vital role in providing food and clean water, controlling infectious diseases, absorbing wastes, regulating climate and are the source of much of the cultural, spiritual and recreational inspiration needed to maintain mental and physical health - as well as being the providers of the essential materials needed for traditional medicine and modern pharmaceuticals. As with the other reports in the Arguments for Protection series this report provides the most detailed global overview to date of the role of protected areas in ensuring human health.

Link: assets.panda.org/downloads/vital_sites.pdf

Next Steps: Convention on Biological Diversity’s Programme of Work on Protected Areas

Author(s):
Publisher: IUCN, 2010

This paper, which Equilibrium Research was commissioned to develop and edit, outlines proposals from IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) on new strategies  and opportunities arising from the review of the Programme of  Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) at the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 10th Conference of Parties (COP) in Nagoya, Japan in 2010.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/the_future_of_the_powpa

Summary. Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton, Alexander Belokurov, Linda Krueger, Nik Lopoukhine, Kathy MacKinnon, Trevor Sandwith and Nik Sekhran (editors)
Publisher: WWF, 2010

Three language (English, French, Spanish) summary of the Natural Solutions report.

Link:   Download PDF

Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton, Alexander Belokurov, Linda Krueger, Nik Lopoukhine, Kathy MacKinnon, Trevor Sandwith and Nik Sekhran (editors)
Publisher: WWF, 2009

A report funded and commissioned by IUCN-WCPA, TNC, UNDP, WCS, The World Bank and WWF with a preface by Lord Nicholas Stern. The sixth report in the WWF Arguments for Protection series.  Natural Solutions details, for the first time, how protected areas contribute significantly to reducing impacts of climate change. This well referenced report discusses how protected areas store carbon and capture additional atmospheric carbon dioxide; and documents their role in maintaining ecosystem integrity and providing essential ecosystem services that will help us adapt to climate change. 

Link: www.iucn.org

International Workshop on the Future of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, 2009

Overview of a workshop held in Jeju Island, South Korea, which brought together people from around the world to discuss next steps in the CBD's Programme of Work on Protected Areas, building up to the planned revision of the Programme in 2010.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/the_future_of_powpa_workshop_11_09.pdf

Korea's Protected Areas: evaluating the effectiveness of South Korea's protected areas system

Author(s): Multiple authors
Publisher: Korea National Park Service, 2009

The first national evaluation of Korea's protected area system, carried out by a joint team of in-country specialists and external reviewers from Australia, Finland and the UK. The evaluation was carried out using a methodology based on the WCPA management effectiveness framework, tailored to the particular need of the country, and included extensive site visits and stakeholder interviews. (A link will be made available as soon as the report is loded onto the KNPS website)

Communicating values and benefits of protected areas in Europe

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton
Publisher: BfN, Germany, 2009

Proceedings of a seminar on “Communicating values and benefits of protected areas in Europe” at
the International Academy for Nature Conservation on the Island of Vilm, Germany
in April 2009.

Link:   Download PDF

Data Credibility: What Are the “Right” Data for Evaluating Management Effectiveness of Protected Areas?

Author(s): Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton, Nigel Dudley, Robyn James
Publisher: New Directions for Evaluation, 2009

Protected area management effectiveness evaluation systems rely on a mix of expert knowledge and qualitative assessment. This paper proposes that decisions about the appropriateness of qualitative and quantitative data can be informed by considering issues of (1) the subject matter of evaluation; (2) available resources and data;(3) scale, scope, and time frame of the evaluation; and (4) risks associated with management of the site.

Link: www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117946202/grouphome/home.html

The Links between Protected Areas, Faiths, and Sacred Natural Sites

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Liza Higgins-Zogib and Stephanie Mansourian
Publisher: Society for Conservation Biology, 2009

Paper published in Conservation Biology - Volume 23 Issue 3 (June 2009). The paper examins two ways in
which religious faiths can influence biodiversity conservation in protected areas. First, biodiversity
conservation which is influenced through the direct and often effective protection afforded to wild species in sacred natural sites and in seminatural habitats around religious buildings. Second, faiths which have a
profound impact on attitudes to protection of the natural world through their philosophy, teachings, investment
choices, approaches to land they control, and religious-based management systems.

Link: www.ingentaconnect.com

What makes a "protected area"? The new context from IUCN

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: ECOS Spring 2009 (Vol. 30, No. 1); British Association of Nature Conservationists

A new international definition of a protected area gives greater emphasis to its nature conservation values than in the past and also improves the framework for classifying protected areas according to management objectives. What are the implications for the UK, if any? This article reviews the changes, discusses UK protected areas in this context and makes some recommendations for future initiatives.

Link: www.banc.org.uk/Articles/2009-1-Spring/ECOS-30-1-Cover.pdf

Defining Protected Areas : An international conference in Almeria, Spain 2007

Author(s): Edited by Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN, 2008

The “Categories Summit” which is reported in these proceedings was a major contribution to the revision of the IUCN protected area management categories led by Nigel. The Summit took place in 2007, the proceedings were published in 2008 as a source document at the same time as the revised categories. The final version of the revised category guidance can be downloaded from IUCN at: data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAPS-016.pdf.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/

Landscape aesthetics in British National Parks

Author(s): Shelagh Hourahane, Sue Stolton, Charlie Falzon and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: GTZ, IUCN and Obra Social de Caixa Catalunya, 2008

The second volume in the new series published by the Protected Landscapes Task Force of IUCN´s World Commission on Protected Areas on the Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes explores why protected landscapes are of great importance to local communities, and to the countries and regions in which they are found, for non-material reasons. The chapter on British National Parks focusses on Snowdonia in Wales. Snowdonia was initially protected for its landscape qualities, a mix of mountain peaks and ridges and cultural landscapes which have evolved over thousands of years. The chapter looks at the changing perceptions of this landscape over the last three hundred years, charting the growing appreciation of the areas special qualities through reference to visual art and literature. The publication is available in English and Spanish,

Link: www.conservation-development.net/

Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories

Author(s): Edited by Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, October 2008

The IUCN protected area management categories are an attempt to provide a framework for the variety of protected area management types used globally. As such they represent a critical over-arching framework that helps to shape the management and the priorities of protected areas around the world. This revision of the 1994 version of the guidance to the application of the categories is the result of six years of work during which time  IUCN has consulted with a huge number of its members in special meetings, conferences, electronic debates and considerable correspondence. Available in English, French and Spanish.

Link: www.iucn.org

Valuing Nature: Assessing Protected Area Benefits

Author(s): L Pabon-Zamora, J Bezaury, F Leon, L Gill, S Stolton, A Grover, S Mitchell and N Dudley
Publisher: TNC, 2008

One of TNC's Quick Guides for Protected Area Practitioners, this publication summarises the process of undertaking a ‘Valuing Nature’ campaign, i.e. the identification, systematization and dissemination of information about the environmental, social and economic benefits provided by protected areas in order to generate political will, create public awareness, and mobilize and increased funding for protected areas.

Link: www.conservationgateway.org

Assessing and Creating Linkages: Within and beyond protected areas

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Madhu Rao
Publisher: TNC, 2008

The creation of landscape linkages is one of the most important developments in conservation biology. This Quick Guide, aimed at protected area planners and agency officials, summarises key principles in landscape linkages, and illustrates these principles with six brief case studies.

Link: conserveonline.org/

Filling the Gaps in Protected Area Networks

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Jose Courrau
Publisher: TNC, 2008

There are few hard and fast rules in establishing an effective network of protected areas. What works in one place may be unsuitable in another, and a flexible approach is essential. This Quick Guide explores a range of options for filling gaps in a protected area network, including setting up new protected areas, redesigning existing reserves, fostering a range of management and governance options, exploring other conserved areas, improving management effectiveness and restoring degraded areas.

Link: conserveonline.org/

Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit: Assessing management effectiveness of natural - World Heritage Series n°23

Author(s): Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton, Nigel Dudley, Robyn James, Vinod Mathur, José Courrau, John Makombo and Jeffrey Parrish
Publisher: UNESCO, 2008

The result of a seven year field-based project; the Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit provides technical guidance on developing a monitoring system and a set of tools for carrying out a detailed assessment of management effectiveness. The toolkit is aimed specifically at natural World Heritage sites, but can be used in all protected areas, and is applicable to cultural World Heritage sites as well. Spanish and French versions of the toolkit can also be downloaded from the UNESCO web-site.

Link: whc.unesco.org/en/series/23/

Assessment of Management Effectiveness in European Protected Areas: Sharing Experiences and Promoting Good Management

Author(s): Sue Stolton (Editor)
Publisher: German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 2008

The proceedngs of the first ever seminar on management effectiveness in Europe. The main focus of
the seminar was to hear from as many European countries as possible about their experiences in assessing management effectiveness and to develop an Action Plan to aid the continued sharing and developing of systems for the assessment of management effectiveness in Europe.

Link: www.bfn.de

Natural Security: Protected areas and hazard mitigation

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Nigel Dudley and Jonathan Randall
Publisher: WWF, 2008

The fifth report in the Arguments for Protection series, explores the increasing number and severity of so-called natural disasters, reviews how environmental degradation is contributing to this trend, looks at how conservation through protection is currently mitigating the impacts of hazards and disasters and discusses the options for further developing the role of protected areas in disaster prevention and mitigation strategies.  It includes detailed case studies on the impacts of floods in Bangladesh (2000), Mozambique (2000 and 2001) and Europe (2006), heat waves and forest fires in Portugal (2003), an earthquake in Pakistan (2005) and the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) and Hurricane Katrina in the USA (2005) in illustrating the natural disaster prevention and mitigation potential of environmental conservation.

Link: www.panda.org

Safety Net: Protected areas and poverty reduction

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Stephanie Mansourian, Sue Stolton and Surin Suksuwan
Publisher: WWF, 2008

This report, the fourth in the WWF Arguments for Protection Series, uses new tools (see details of the Benefits Assessment Tool below) to analyse the links between protected areas and poverty reduction. Efforts to align protected areas and poverty reduction have continued for some time and have a mixed history; while some social programmes associated with protected areas have worked well there have also been plenty of failures. The report aims to give a balanced overview of what is happening around the world and of what appears to work and what does not.

Link: www.panda.org

Ecoregions with crop wild relatives are less well protected: Biodiversity 9:1&2

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Tim Boucher, Nigel Dudley, Jonathan Hoekstra, Nigel Maxted and Shelagh Kell
Publisher: Tropical Conservancy, Canada, 2008

In situ conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) is recognised as an important factor in maintaining global food security; however, until now there has been no systematic global assessment of the protection status of this vital source of  agrobiodiversity. This paper discusses in more detail the research carried for the Arguments for Protection report Food Stores to assess CWR global conservation status.

Link: www.tc-biodiversity.org/index2.htm

PARKS Magazine 17.1 Implementing the CBD PoWPA

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton, Jamison Ervin and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, February 2008

The CBD's Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) is doubtlessly the most ambitious global commitment yet made by governments to completing a protected areas network. The PoWPA is four years old – and several of its ambitious deadlines have passed. This issue of Parks aims to recognise and celebrate the success in implementation and discuss some of the challenges in implementation and highlight activities which are in train to speed up the process.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/parks17_1_web.pdf

Protected Areas in Today's World: Their Values and Benefits for the Welfare of the Planet

Author(s): Contirbutions to several chapters by Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: CBD, February 2008

Equilibrium contributed to several chapters in this volume including: Poverty and Protected Areas by Stephanie Mansourian, Liza Higgins-Zogib, Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton; Drinking Water and Protected Areas by Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton; and Protected Areas and Plant Agrobiodiversity by Sue Stolton, Nigel Maxted, Shelagh Kell, Brian Ford-Lloyd and Nigel Dudley.

Link: www.cbd.int/programmes/outreach/awareness/ts.shtml

The Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool: A methodology

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF, February 2008 (revised 2009)

The Protected Area Benefit Assessment Tool (PA-BAT) aims to help collate information on the full range of current and potential benefits of individual protected areas. It is a contributory methodology for the overall Arguments for Protection series, but is also a stand-alone tool that will be of wider use to the protected areas community. 

The PA-BAT has been primarily designed for use by protected area managers to work with stakeholders to identify important values and the benefits that they bring to a range of stakeholders, from local to global. The PA-BAT can also be used by local communities to identify values/benefits and by protected area advocates, such as NGOs, to help promote the range of benefits a protected area can bring. Because the tool has developed a standard typology of values and benefits the results from the tool can be aggregated to provide an overview of a portfolio of protected areas (e.g. regional groups, nationa

Link: wwf.panda.org/

Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool - Reporting Progress at Protected Area Sites: Second Edition

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Marc Hockings, Nigel Dudley, Kathy MacKinnon, Tony Whitten and Fiona Leverington
Publisher: WWF, 2008

The Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) was originally developed to help track and monitor progress in the achievement of the World Bank/WWF Alliance worldwide protected area management effectiveness target. The Tracking Tool has however been used more generally to help monitor progress towards improving management effectiveness; for example it is now obligatory for all Global Environment Facility protected area projects to use the Tracking Tool three times during the projects lifespan and the tool has been modified for use in several national protected area systems. In addition, use of the Tracking Tool can help managers track progress in implementing protected areas commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. This revised version follows the experiences and lessons learned from hundreds of applications of the METT and regional training workshops on using the METT.

Link:   Download PDF

Protected Landscapes and Agrobiodiversity Values

Author(s): Edited by Thora Amend, Jessica Brown, Ashish Kothari, Adrian Phillips and Sue Stolton
Publisher: GTZ and IUCN, 2008

The first volume in a new series published by the Protected Landscapes Task Force of IUCN´s World Commission on Protected Areas on the Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes. This volume presents twelve case studies from different parts of the world illustrating the role Protected Landscapes are playing in conserving agrobiodiversity and related knowledge and practices.

Link: www.conservation-development.net/

Tracking progress in managing protected areas around the world. An analysis of two applications of the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool developed by WWF and the World Bank

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Alexander Belokurov, Liza Higgins-Zogib, Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton and Neil Burgess
Publisher: WWF, 2007

WWF has surveyed management effectiveness in over 330 protected areas in 51 countries, using the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) developed together with the World Bank. METT surveys were undertaken in 2004 and 2006, including 79 repeat surveys of the same sites. This global survey comprises the widest sample of protected area management effectiveness yet undertaken, using a consistent methodology across countries and repeated over time. This report summarises the key findings of this implementation.

Link:   Download PDF

Kaziranga National Park and World Heritage Site, India: Taking the Long View

Author(s): Vinod Mathur, Ashok Verma, Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton, Marc Hockings, and Robyn James
Publisher: UNESCO, 2007

Publication of the 2005 paper (see below) in the UNESCO volume World Heritage Forests, leveraging Conservation at the Landscape Level.

Link: whc.unesco.org/en/series/21/

Company reserves: Integrating biological reserves owned and managed by commercial companies into the global protected areas network – a review of options

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF, 2007

This 'white paper' looks at the options for developing company protected areas, current initiatives and implications and gives recommendations for future developments. It concludes that there are clear incentives for companies in the establishment and management of areas for protection (good press, financial gain, and environmental services) and that formalising these activities into the global network of protected areas would have important benefits for the private sector:

Link:   Download PDF

Conservation Action Planning: A Review of Use and Adaptation in Protected Area Planning and Management

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Oscar Maldonado and Sue Stolton
Publisher: TNC, 2007

The Nature Conservancy’s Conservation Action Planning (CAP) process is one of the most widely used conservation planning tools in the world, both through TNC projects and increasingly by partners and by people unrelated to TNC. This review attempts to show (1) the geographic extent to which the CAP has been used, both within TNC and beyond its immediate influence, and (2) the degree to which CAP has been developed, adapted to different contexts and circumstances, and modified – in particular for protected area management planning.

Link:   Download PDF

Food Stores: Using protected areas to secure crop genetic diversity: Arguments for Protection series

Author(s): Sue Stolton, Nigel Maxted, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Shelagh Kell and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF and the University of Birmingham, UK, 2006

Third in a series looking at the wider benefits of protected areas. Examines the role of protected areas in protected crop wild relatives and land races for agricultural stability, including many examples and case studies and also guidelines for protected area managers.

Link: www.panda.org

Evaluating Effectiveness: A framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas, 2nd edition

Author(s): Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton, Fiona Leverington, Nigel Dudley and José Courrau
Publisher: IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas and James Cook University, Brisbane, Australia, 2006

The book provides technical guidance on assessing management effectiveness, which is proposed needs consideration of six elements: context, planning, inputs, process, outputs and outcomes: includes case studies from amongst others the Western India Ocean, Finland, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Australia and Catalonia, Spain. Second edition of a guide first published in 2000, but with considerably revised text and all new case studies.

Link: www.iucn.org

Beyond Belief: Linking faiths and protected areas to support biodiversity conservation

Author(s): Written and edited by Nigel Dudley, Liza Higgins-Zogib and Stephanie Mansourian
Publisher: WWF and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation, 2006

Religions influence biodiversity protection both through their actions and teachings, and because almost all faiths also have direct influence on the way that land and water is managed. For instance, sacred natural sites are almost certainly the oldest forms of “protected areas” and there are thought to be hundreds of thousands of them around the world, contributing to global efforts to conserve biological diversity. We survey these links in the 11 mainstream faiths and many local belief systems, and make recommendations for how faiths and conservation organisations can work more closely together. It is the second in our “arguments for protection” series, which looks at the wider benefits of protected areas (Running Pure, see below, was the first).

Link: www.panda.org/

Forests and Protected Areas: Guidance on use of the IUCN protected area management categories: Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series number 12

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Adrian Phillips
Publisher: IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas and Cardiff University, UK, 2006

Technical guidance on the application of IUCN’s six protected area management categories to forest protected areas, with examples of each and of forests that are not in protected areas. Aimed to dispel the confusion that has arisen in terms of reporting forest protected area statistics in the context of the FAO/UNECE Forest Resource Assessments and the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Link: data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAG-012.pdf

Private Protected Areas in East and southern Africa: contributing to biodiversity conservation and rural development

Author(s): Brian Jones, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Parks, Vol 15, No 2, IUCN, 2005

This paper provides and overview of privately conserved areas in East and southern Africa, and assesses their conservation and socio-economic impacts. It considers key issues regarding the nature and future of these protected areas.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/parks_15_2.pdf

Les Aires Protégées à Madagascar: bâtir le système à partir de la base

Author(s): By Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, 2005

Report of a second mission to Madagascar, working on plans to triple the area of protected areas within the country. Includes a draft tool to help governments make decisions about which IUCN protected area category and which governance type are most suitable for a particular protected area. In French with English summary.

Link:   Download PDF

The role of forest protected areas in supplying drinking water to the world's biggest cities

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton, in The Urban Imperative, edited by Ted Trzyna
Publisher: IUCN and Californian Institute of Public Affairs, 2005

A summary of the book Running Pure (see below) produced as a contribution to a workshop on cities and protected areas, convened at the Fifth World Parks Congress.

Link: www.interenvironment.org/cipa/tui.htm

Opportunities and challenges for Kaziranga National Park, Assam over the next fifty years

Author(s): By V.B. Mathur, Ashok Verma, Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton, Marc Hockings and Robyn James
Publisher: EoH, 2005

The last one hundred years have seen major conservation successes in Kaziranga National Park, with populations of many endangered species rising and ecological integrity maintained. Maintaining these successes, however, is a management challenge. Kaziranga is a relatively small park, in a rapidly change natural and economic environment. The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges for Kaziranga over the next fifty years highlights the risk of the area becoming an ‘island’ in a sea of development and notes the urgent need to carry out a landscape level strategic environment assessment to ensure that conservation concerns are fully integrated into regional planning.

Link: whc.unesco.org/

Elan Durban: Nouvelles perspectives pour les Aires Protégées à Madagascar

Author(s): By Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, WCPA and CEESP, April 2005

Report of a mission on behalf of IUCN The World Conservation Union, to advise the government of Madagascar on its ambitious plans to triple the country’s protected area coverage. The report focuses principally on issues relating to management objectives and governance systems for the new protected areas, recommending a bottom up approach drawing on a full range of management and governance options. In French with English summary.

Link:   Download PDF

Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Finland's Protected Areas

Author(s): By Brian Gilligan, Nigel Dudley, Antonio Fernandez de Tejada and Heikki Toivonen
Publisher: Metsähallitus, 2005

A comprehensive Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of the Finnish protected area system was commissioned by Metsähallitus Natural Heritage Services in 2004. The Finnish MEE is the first comprehensive agency-wide evaluation conducted in a developed country. As such, it serves as an example for future evaluations to be carried out in accordance with the targets of the Programme of Work on Protected Areas developed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Link: www.metsa.fi/mee/

Ecological Integrity - A draft assessment measured against key management targets for Serengeti National Park

Author(s): By Ephraim Mwangomo, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Enhancing our Heritage Project, 2005

The UNF-funded Enhancing our Heritage project has drawn on global expertise to develop a framework for monitoring and assessing ecological integrity in protected areas (see revised EoH workbook below). This framework was tested in Serengeti National Park (one of the nine World Heritage Sites taking part in the EoH project). The proposed General Management Plan (GMP) for Serengeti National Park and World Heritage Centre is based around meeting eight targets relating to biodiversity and ecological integrity. This paper presents the status, trends and a brief assessment of these eight indicators.

Link:   Download PDF

Ecological Integrity - Plans for monitoring the Serengeti ecosystem and threats to the ecosystem

Author(s): By Ephraim Mwangomo, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Enhancing our Heritage Project, 2005

An overview of the development of the Plan for Monitoring the Serengeti Ecosystem and threats to the ecosystem; a summary and frequency of all monitoring activities; and a detailed analysis of the indicators being monitored.

Link:   Download PDF

Towards Effective Protected Area Systems: An Action Guide to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity Programme of Work on Protected Areas

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley, Kalemani Jo Mulongoy, Sheldon Cohen, Sue Stolton, Charles Victor Barber and Sarat Babu Gidda
Publisher: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2005

The seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2004 adopted an ambitious Programme of Work on protected areas. This Action Guide to the Programme of Work on Protected Areas, one of the CBD’s Technical Series, describes the targets and timetables and provides an overview of potential steps, case studies, tools and resources for implementation.

Link: www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbd-ts-18.pdf

Further development of tool kits for the identification, designation, management, monitoring and evaluation of national and regional systems of protected areas

Author(s):
Publisher: UNEP/CBD/WG-PA/1/4/26 April 2005

Paper prepared for the first meeting of the CBD Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Protected Areas. The CBD’s Programme of Work on Protected Areas includes activities for the identification, designation, management, monitoring and evaluation of national and regional systems of protected areas, including ecological networks, ecological corridors, and buffer zones. Identification, designation, management and monitoring and evaluation of protected areas involves complex, multi-layered tasks. A range of tools has been developed to facilitate the implementation of these activities. This report describes 118 of these tools, as well as their sources of information and their relevance to the programme of work on protected areas. Gaps in tool availability are also noted. The paper was one of the official conference papers for an ad hoc meeting on protected areas held in Montecatini, Italy in June 2005.

Link: www.biodiv.org/doc/meetings/pa/pawg-01/official/pawg-01-04-en.pdf

Towards an Effective Protected Areas Network in Africa: Experience in assessing protected area management effectiveness and future proposals

Author(s): Edited by Nigel Dudley, Jack Hurd and Alexander Belokurov
Publisher: WWF, 2005

An ecologically representative network of effectively managed protected areas will make an essential contribution to sustainable development in Africa, maintaining biodiversity, environmental services and human well-being. This report summarises contemporary African experience with assessment of management effectiveness, drawing on a range of case studies, including outputs from a workshop organised by WWF and the World Bank in Kribi, Cameroon in June 2002 and subsequent assessments.

Link:   Download PDF

Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning

Author(s):
Publisher: Routledge, 2005

Two relevant papers were published in volume 6(2): Management effectiveness: assessing management of protected areas By Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley and Options For Guaranteeing the Effective Management of the World's Protected Areas By Nigel Dudley, Marc Hockings and Sue Stolton.

Link: journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/

Parks: Volume 14: No 3. Protected Area Categories

Author(s): By Kevin Bishop, Nigel Dudley, Adrian Phillips and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN, 2004

More than 25 years ago, IUCN developed a preliminary system of protected area management categories to help make sense of the world's growing protected area network, aiming both to define and record the resources. This issue of Parks draws upon a review of this system, Speaking a Common Language (see below), highlighting the most important discussion, case studies and conclusions brought to light during the study.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/14_3lowres.pdf

Speaking a Common Language

Author(s): By Kevin Bishop, Nigel Dudley, Adrian Phillips and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN, October 2004

Detailed analysis of the impacts of the six IUCN protected area management categories, carried out for IUCN with Cardiff University, including 18 case studies and providing clear guidelines on how changing uses mean a different approach to the categories including development of new guidance on their application. The publication is available in English and Russian.

Link: www.iucn.org/

Protected Areas and Certification

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN, 2004

Paper written as a contribution to the 49th IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper “International Environmental Governance” edited by John Scanlon and Françoise Burhenne-Guilmin, outlining options for using certification as a means of ensuring management effectiveness of protected areas.

Link: data.iucn.org/

Assessing Management Effectiveness of Natural World Heritage Sites

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: UNESCO World Heritage Centre and ICCROM, 2004

Published in World Heritage Papers 10, this chapter describes the Enhancing our Heritage project and the relationship between the project's objectives and the monitoring requirements contained within the World Heritage Convention.

Link: whc.unesco.org/en/series/10/

Are protected areas working? An analysis of forest protected areas by WWF

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley, Alexander Belokurov, Oleg Borodin, Liza Higgins-Zogib, Marc Hockings, Leonardo Lacerda and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF International, June 2004

The Seventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-7) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the proposed target of having an assessment of at least 30 per cent of each Party's protected areas, as well as evaluations of national protected area systems and ecological networks in all countries, by 2010. This updated version of the assessment presented to COP-7 (see below) demonstrates that effectiveness is strongly correlated with monitoring and evaluation.

Link: assets.panda.org/downloads/areprotectedareasworking.pdf

How effective are protected areas? A preliminary analysis of forest protected areas by WWF

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley, Alexander Belokurov, Oleg Borodin, Liza Higgins-Zogib, Marc Hockings, Leonardo Lacerda and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF International, February 2004

Prepared for the Seventh Conference of Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2004, which focused on the role and importance of protected areas; this report outlines some preliminary results from the first application of the World Bank and WWF Site-Level Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (see below). This is the largest global survey yet undertaken of protected area effectiveness, using a single methodology.

Link: assets.panda.org/

Ecological and Socio-Economic Benefits of Protected Areas in Dealing with Climate Change

Author(s): A chapter by Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton in a book: A Users Guide to Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate Change in Natural Systems - edited by L J Hansen, J L Biringer and J R Hofman
Publisher: WWF US, September 2003

Protected areas are likely to suffer from the impacts of climate change, but they also provide some potential benefits, including mitigating disasters such as droughts and floods; preserving biodiversity; increasing water security; helping to safeguard against crop genetic stress; and helping to maintain food supplies, including fish stocks. Examples of the practical uses of protected areas are given for each of the subjects covered. This is a further addition to Equilibrium’s work on “arguments for protection” (see the publication “Running Pure” above) and will be expanded into a more comprehensive report in the future.

Link: assets.panda.org/downloads/buyingtime_unfe.pdf

No Place to Hide: Effects of Climate Change on Protected Areas

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF US, September 2003

Ten years ago, Equilibrium co-authored a book on climate change and biodiversity, “Some Like it Hot”. Then the impacts of climate change remained mainly theoretical. This new paper provides an overview of recent research which reports on observed impacts due to changing climate inside the boundaries of protected areas. The results suggest that current protection strategies are not enough to maintain ecosystems; we need to start developing new management strategies to minimise likely detrimental impacts.

Link: assets.panda.org/downloads/wwfparksbro.pdf

Conserving Nature - Partnering with People

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton edited by Emma Duncan
Publisher: WWF International, September 2003

Equilibrium worked with WWF to produce a position paper for the 5th World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa and then produced a more popular version of the position, explaining WWF’s history in protected area projects, its views and plans for the future.

Link:   Download PDF

Running Pure - the importance of forest protected areas to drinking water

Author(s): Written and edited by Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton with contributions from 12 others
Publisher: World Bank and WWF, September 2003

Approximately a third of the world’s hundred largest cities rely on forest protected areas to supply a substantial amount of their drinking water. This book reports on the research that produced the statistics; demystifies the links between natural forests and water resources, including drinking water; looks at the environmental and social implications; and gives a number of detailed case studies from around the world. It is the first in what we plan to be a series of wider “arguments for protection” looking at wider benefits from protected areas.

Link: assets.panda.org/

Running Pure - the importance of forest protected areas to drinking water: Summary

Author(s):
Publisher: World Bank and WWF, September 2003

Summary of the Running Pure report

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/avspecial_water.pdf

Protection Assured

Author(s): By Nigel Dudley, Marc Hockings and Sue Stolton
Publisher: IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, August 2003

How do we guarantee that protected areas are actually being managed effectively to preserve their values. This discussion paper, produced by the WCPA task force on protected area certification for the 5th World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa in September 2003, outlines some options, ranging from the use of “danger lists” through various forms of self assessment to full scale certification systems, and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Link:   Download PDF

Reporting Progress in Protected Areas: A site-level management effectiveness tracking tool

Author(s): By Sue Stolton, Marc Hockings, Nigel Dudley, Kathy MacKinnon and Tony Whitten
Publisher: World Bank and WWF, June 2003

A site level questionnaire to help measure progress in management effectiveness of protected areas over time; the tracking tool uses multiple choice questions backed up by explanatory comments and identification of next steps. The tracking tool is being used widely in WWF, World Bank and Global Environmental Facility projects and has since also been adapted by the World Bank for marine protected areas. The Tracking Tool was revised in 2008.

Evaluating effectiveness: A summary for park managers and policy makers

Author(s): By Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: World Bank, WWF and IUCN, 2003

In 1997, the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) set up a Management Effectiveness Task Force to focus attention on the issue of management effectiveness and to look at options for assessment. The Task Force developed an overall framework for assessment which was published by IUCN as part of the Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series in 2000 (see below). This summary document, published in English, Spanish, French and Bahasa Indonesian, provides an outline of the framework presented in that publication and makes some suggestions about how this might be used in practice. Our site includes English version, please contact us for others.

Link:   Download PDF

Forest Protected Areas: Why Should We Worry About Systematic Planning

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Bob Pressey
Publisher: WWF and IUCN, Arborvitae Supplement October 2001

Protected areas systems need to be carefully designed if they are to be effective at conserving biodiversity. This arborvitae special describes some of the current design constraints as they relate to forest protected areas, and introduces a WWF project that is aiming to address these shortcomings through development of a guide for systematic conservation planning.

Link:   Download PDF

Evaluating Effectiveness: A Framework for Assessing the Management of Protected Areas

Author(s): Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: IUCN/Cardiff University Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series, 2000

Developed by the IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) Task Force on Management Effectiveness, the framework provides both overall guidance in the development of assessment systems and encourages basic standards for assessment and reporting.

An updated version of the framework was published in 2006 (see above).

The WCPA Management Effectiveness Framework - Where to from here?

Author(s): Marc Hockings, Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF International, Switzerland, 2000

In the proceedings of the May 2000, WWF-hosted conference on forest protected areas in Thailand, Beyond the Trees, edited by Devendra Rana and Liz Edelman.

Link:   Download PDF

The Use of Certification of Sustainable Management Systems and their Possible Application to Protected Area Management

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: WWF International, Switzerland, 2000

In the proceedings of the May 2000, WWF-hosted conference on forest protected areas in Thailand, Beyond the Trees, edited by Devendra Rana and Liz Edelman.

Link:   Download PDF

Squandering Paradise. The Importance and Vulnerability of the World's Protected Areas

Author(s): Christine Carey, Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF International, Switzerland, 2000

A report for WWF that looks at the extent of the problems facing the world's protected areas. It is illustrated with a range of specially commissioned case studies and many examples. The report explains why protected areas are important, looks at the trends and nature of the threats facing them, makes some predictions about the likelihood of losses and ends with some proposals and a call for action in the lead-up to the World Parks Congress in 2003.

Link:   Download PDF

Management Effectiveness of Protected Areas; Manejo efectivo de Areas Protegidas; L'efficacite de la gestion des Aires Protegees

Author(s): Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
Publisher: WWF International/IUCN, Switzerland, 2000

A three-language supplement to the IUCN/WWF joint forest newsletter arborvitae reporting on an International Workshop on Management Effectiveness of Protected Areas, organised by the WWF/IUCN Forest Innovations Project and the World Commission on Protected Areas in association with the WWF-World Bank Alliance and the WWF Forests for Life Campaign, which took place in Costa Rica in June 1999. The document summarises the main results of the workshop, including a discussion about the objectives and scope of assessment and identification of some basic principles for assessing management effectiveness.

Link: cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/avspecial_management_effective.pdf

Effectiveness of forest protected areas

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Marc Hockings, Sue Stolton and Michael Kiernan
Publisher: Equilibrium Research, 1999

A paper prepared for the World Bank for the IFF intersessional meeting on protected areas in Puerto Rico (1999).

Link:   Download PDF

The role of forest protected areas in the landscape

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Adrian Phillips and Sue Stolton
Publisher: Equilibrium Research, 1999

A paper prepared for a meeting sponsored by The World Bank at the Council on Foreign Relations, Washington DC, 1999.

Link:   Download PDF

Partnerships for Protection

Author(s): Edited by Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Earthscan Publication Ltd, 1999

This book, the result of a collaborative project between IUCN and WWF, looks at how protected areas can be best placed within the larger framework of sustainable resource management and how their relationship to human communities is changing. Specifically, it explores innovative approaches to conservation involving individuals, communities, companies and governments and ways of ensuring that all major ecosystems are safeguarded. The essence of the approach is to build partnerships with those who have a stake in the care of land and water resources. The book draws on the expertise of 42 of the world's leading conservation experts who set forth their thoughts on new approaches to protected areas.

Link: www.nhbs.com

A preliminary survey of management status and threats in forest protected areas

Author(s): Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley
Publisher: Parks 9 (2), 1999

A summary of the report Threats to Forest Protected Areas - see below.

Link: www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/wcpa

Threats to Forest Protected Areas: Summary of a survey of 10 countries

Author(s): IUCN, Switzerland, 1999
Publisher:

In 1997, WWF formed a partnership with the World Bank to implement two forest conservation targets: to create 50 million hectares of new forest protected areas and to independently certify an additional 200 million hectares of forest. Following recognition of the scale of threats facing existing protected areas, it was suggested that the protected area target be extended to include improvement of management in either unimplemented protected areas or in protected areas currently threatened or undergoing degradation. As part of the planning for the new target, the WWF-World Bank Alliance commissioned a survey of the status of forest protected areas. This included a detailed literature survey of existing information and an expert survey of management status and threats in ten important World Bank client countries. The following report summarises some of the study's findings. A full copy of the results from the ten countries is available on paper only and can be purchased from the Forest C

Link: www.worldwildlife.org

Protected Areas for a New Millennium

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton, Adrian Phillips, Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud, Don Gilmour and Gonzalo Oviedo
Publisher: WWF International/IUCN, Switzerland, 1998

The theory and practice of protected area management have both undergone dramatic changes in the last few years. Protected areas are becoming far more flexible in terms of their aims, definition, size and approaches to management. This joint IUCN and WWF discussion paper explores the implications of these changes, with respect to interpretation; design; management and assessment and verification.

Link:   Download PDF

Why research in natural forest reserves?

Author(s): Nigel Dudley
Publisher:

A discussion paper for COST Action E4, Forest Reserves Research Network Management Committee meeting, Fontainebleau, September 12-14 1996